Source code for rdflib.graph

```"""\

RDFLib defines the following kinds of Graphs:

* :class:`~rdflib.graph.Graph`
* :class:`~rdflib.graph.QuotedGraph`
* :class:`~rdflib.graph.ConjunctiveGraph`
* :class:`~rdflib.graph.Dataset`

Graph
-----

An RDF graph is a set of RDF triples. Graphs support the python ``in``
operator, as well as iteration and some operations like union,
difference and intersection.

see :class:`~rdflib.graph.Graph`

Conjunctive Graph
-----------------

A Conjunctive Graph is the most relevant collection of graphs that are
considered to be the boundary for closed world assumptions.  This
boundary is equivalent to that of the store instance (which is itself
uniquely identified and distinct from other instances of
:class:`~rdflib.store.Store` that signify other Conjunctive Graphs).  It is
equivalent to all the named graphs within it and associated with a
``_default_`` graph which is automatically assigned a
:class:`~rdflib.term.BNode` for an identifier - if one isn't given.

see :class:`~rdflib.graph.ConjunctiveGraph`

Quoted graph
------------

The notion of an RDF graph [14] is extended to include the concept of
a formula node. A formula node may occur wherever any other kind of
node can appear. Associated with a formula node is an RDF graph that
is completely disjoint from all other graphs; i.e. has no nodes in
common with any other graph. (It may contain the same labels as other
RDF graphs; because this is, by definition, a separate graph,
considerations of tidiness do not apply between the graph at a formula
node and any other graph.)

This is intended to map the idea of "{ N3-expression }" that is used
by N3 into an RDF graph upon which RDF semantics is defined.

see :class:`~rdflib.graph.QuotedGraph`

Dataset
-------

The RDF 1.1 Dataset, a small extension to the Conjunctive Graph. The
primary term is "graphs in the datasets" and not "contexts with quads"
so there is a separate method to set/retrieve a graph in a dataset and
to operate with dataset graphs. As a consequence of this approach,
dataset graphs cannot be identified with blank nodes, a name is always
required (RDFLib will automatically add a name if one is not provided
at creation time). This implementation includes a convenience method

see :class:`~rdflib.graph.Dataset`

Working with graphs
===================

Instantiating Graphs with default store (Memory) and default identifier
(a BNode):

>>> g = Graph()
>>> g.store.__class__
<class 'rdflib.plugins.stores.memory.Memory'>
>>> g.identifier.__class__
<class 'rdflib.term.BNode'>

Instantiating Graphs with a Memory store and an identifier -
<https://rdflib.github.io>:

>>> g = Graph('Memory', URIRef("https://rdflib.github.io"))
>>> g.identifier
rdflib.term.URIRef('https://rdflib.github.io')
>>> str(g)  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
"<https://rdflib.github.io> a rdfg:Graph;rdflib:storage
[a rdflib:Store;rdfs:label 'Memory']."

Creating a ConjunctiveGraph - The top level container for all named Graphs
in a "database":

>>> g = ConjunctiveGraph()
>>> str(g.default_context)
"[a rdfg:Graph;rdflib:storage [a rdflib:Store;rdfs:label 'Memory']]."

Adding / removing reified triples to Graph and iterating over it directly or
via triple pattern:

>>> g = Graph()
>>> statementId = BNode()
>>> print(len(g))
0
>>> g.add((statementId, RDF.type, RDF.Statement)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
...     URIRef("https://rdflib.github.io/store/ConjunctiveGraph"))) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g.add((statementId, RDF.predicate, namespace.RDFS.label)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g.add((statementId, RDF.object, Literal("Conjunctive Graph"))) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> print(len(g))
4
>>> for s, p, o in g:
...     print(type(s))
...
<class 'rdflib.term.BNode'>
<class 'rdflib.term.BNode'>
<class 'rdflib.term.BNode'>
<class 'rdflib.term.BNode'>

>>> for s, p, o in g.triples((None, RDF.object, None)):
...     print(o)
...
Conjunctive Graph
>>> g.remove((statementId, RDF.type, RDF.Statement)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> print(len(g))
3

``None`` terms in calls to :meth:`~rdflib.graph.Graph.triples` can be
thought of as "open variables".

Graph support set-theoretic operators, you can add/subtract graphs, as
well as intersection (with multiplication operator g1*g2) and xor (g1
^ g2).

Note that BNode IDs are kept when doing set-theoretic operations, this
may or may not be what you want. Two named graphs within the same
application probably want share BNode IDs, two graphs with data from
different sources probably not.  If your BNode IDs are all generated
by RDFLib they are UUIDs and unique.

>>> g1 = Graph()
>>> g2 = Graph()
>>> u = URIRef("http://example.com/foo")
>>> g1.add([u, namespace.RDFS.label, Literal("foo")]) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g1.add([u, namespace.RDFS.label, Literal("bar")]) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g2.add([u, namespace.RDFS.label, Literal("foo")]) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g2.add([u, namespace.RDFS.label, Literal("bing")]) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> len(g1 + g2)  # adds bing as label
3
>>> len(g1 - g2)  # removes foo
1
>>> len(g1 * g2)  # only foo
1
>>> g1 += g2  # now g1 contains everything

Graph Aggregation - ConjunctiveGraphs and ReadOnlyGraphAggregate within
the same store:

>>> store = plugin.get("Memory", Store)()
>>> g1 = Graph(store)
>>> g2 = Graph(store)
>>> g3 = Graph(store)
>>> stmt1 = BNode()
>>> stmt2 = BNode()
>>> stmt3 = BNode()
>>> g1.add((stmt1, RDF.type, RDF.Statement)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
...     URIRef('https://rdflib.github.io/store/ConjunctiveGraph'))) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g1.add((stmt1, RDF.predicate, namespace.RDFS.label)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g1.add((stmt1, RDF.object, Literal('Conjunctive Graph'))) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g2.add((stmt2, RDF.type, RDF.Statement)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
...     URIRef('https://rdflib.github.io/store/ConjunctiveGraph'))) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g2.add((stmt2, RDF.predicate, RDF.type)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g2.add((stmt2, RDF.object, namespace.RDFS.Class)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g3.add((stmt3, RDF.type, RDF.Statement)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
...     URIRef('https://rdflib.github.io/store/ConjunctiveGraph'))) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> g3.add((stmt3, RDF.predicate, namespace.RDFS.comment)) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
...     'The top-level aggregate graph - The sum ' +
...     'of all named graphs within a Store'))) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> len(list(ConjunctiveGraph(store).subjects(RDF.type, RDF.Statement)))
3
...     RDF.type, RDF.Statement)))
2

which returns quads instead of triples, where the fourth item is the Graph
(or subclass thereof) instance in which the triple was asserted:

>>> uniqueGraphNames = set(
...     [graph.identifier for s, p, o, graph in ConjunctiveGraph(store
>>> len(uniqueGraphNames)
3
>>> uniqueGraphNames = set(
...     [graph.identifier for s, p, o, graph in unionGraph.quads(
...     (None, RDF.predicate, None))])
>>> len(uniqueGraphNames)
2

Parsing N3 from a string

>>> g2 = Graph()
>>> src = '''
... @prefix rdf:  <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
... @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
... [ a rdf:Statement ;
...   rdf:subject <https://rdflib.github.io/store#ConjunctiveGraph>;
...   rdf:predicate rdfs:label;
...   rdf:object "Conjunctive Graph" ] .
... '''
>>> g2 = g2.parse(data=src, format="n3")
>>> print(len(g2))
4

Using Namespace class:

>>> RDFLib = Namespace("https://rdflib.github.io/")
>>> RDFLib.ConjunctiveGraph
rdflib.term.URIRef('https://rdflib.github.io/ConjunctiveGraph')
>>> RDFLib["Graph"]
rdflib.term.URIRef('https://rdflib.github.io/Graph')

"""

from __future__ import annotations

import logging
import pathlib
import random
from io import BytesIO
from typing import (
IO,
TYPE_CHECKING,
Any,
BinaryIO,
Callable,
Dict,
Generator,
Iterable,
List,
Mapping,
NoReturn,
Optional,
Set,
TextIO,
Tuple,
Type,
TypeVar,
Union,
cast,
)
from urllib.parse import urlparse
from urllib.request import url2pathname

import rdflib.exceptions as exceptions
import rdflib.namespace as namespace  # noqa: F401 # This is here because it is used in a docstring.
import rdflib.plugin as plugin
import rdflib.query as query
import rdflib.util  # avoid circular dependency
from rdflib.collection import Collection
from rdflib.exceptions import ParserError
from rdflib.namespace import RDF, Namespace, NamespaceManager
from rdflib.parser import InputSource, Parser, create_input_source
from rdflib.paths import Path
from rdflib.resource import Resource
from rdflib.serializer import Serializer
from rdflib.store import Store
from rdflib.term import (
BNode,
Genid,
IdentifiedNode,
Identifier,
Literal,
Node,
RDFLibGenid,
URIRef,
)

if TYPE_CHECKING:
import typing_extensions as te

import rdflib.query
from rdflib.plugins.sparql.sparql import Query, Update

_SubjectType = Node
_PredicateType = Node
_ObjectType = Node
_ContextIdentifierType = IdentifiedNode

_TripleType = Tuple["_SubjectType", "_PredicateType", "_ObjectType"]
_QuadType = Tuple["_SubjectType", "_PredicateType", "_ObjectType", "_ContextType"]
"_SubjectType", "_PredicateType", "_ObjectType", Optional["_ContextType"]
]
"_SubjectType", "_PredicateType", "_ObjectType", Optional["_ContextIdentifierType"]
]
_TriplePatternType = Tuple[
Optional["_SubjectType"], Optional["_PredicateType"], Optional["_ObjectType"]
]
_TriplePathPatternType = Tuple[Optional["_SubjectType"], Path, Optional["_ObjectType"]]
Optional["_SubjectType"],
Optional["_PredicateType"],
Optional["_ObjectType"],
Optional["_ContextType"],
]
Optional["_SubjectType"],
Path,
Optional["_ObjectType"],
Optional["_ContextType"],
]
_TripleSelectorType = Tuple[
Optional["_SubjectType"],
Optional[Union["Path", "_PredicateType"]],
Optional["_ObjectType"],
]
Optional["_SubjectType"],
Optional[Union["Path", "_PredicateType"]],
Optional["_ObjectType"],
Optional["_ContextType"],
]
_TriplePathType = Tuple["_SubjectType", Path, "_ObjectType"]
_TripleOrTriplePathType = Union["_TripleType", "_TriplePathType"]

_GraphT = TypeVar("_GraphT", bound="Graph")
_ConjunctiveGraphT = TypeVar("_ConjunctiveGraphT", bound="ConjunctiveGraph")
_DatasetT = TypeVar("_DatasetT", bound="Dataset")

# type error: Function "Type[Literal]" could always be true in boolean contex
assert Literal  # type: ignore[truthy-function] # avoid warning
# type error: Function "Type[Namespace]" could always be true in boolean context
assert Namespace  # type: ignore[truthy-function] # avoid warning

if TYPE_CHECKING:
from rdflib._type_checking import _NamespaceSetString

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

__all__ = [
"Graph",
"ConjunctiveGraph",
"QuotedGraph",
"Seq",
"ModificationException",
"Dataset",
"UnSupportedAggregateOperation",
"_ConjunctiveGraphT",
"_ContextIdentifierType",
"_DatasetT",
"_GraphT",
"_ObjectType",
"_PredicateType",
"_SubjectType",
"_TripleOrTriplePathType",
"_TriplePathPatternType",
"_TriplePathType",
"_TriplePatternType",
"_TripleSelectorType",
"_TripleType",
]

# : Transitive closure arg type.
_TCArgT = TypeVar("_TCArgT")

[docs]class Graph(Node):
"""An RDF Graph

The constructor accepts one argument, the "store"
that will be used to store the graph data (see the "store"
package for stores currently shipped with rdflib).

Stores can be context-aware or unaware.  Unaware stores take up
(some) less space but cannot support features that require
context, such as true merging/demerging of sub-graphs and
provenance.

Even if used with a context-aware store, Graph will only expose the quads which
belong to the default graph. To access the rest of the data, `ConjunctiveGraph` or
`Dataset` classes can be used instead.

The Graph constructor can take an identifier which identifies the Graph
by name.  If none is given, the graph is assigned a BNode for its
identifier.

For more on named graphs, see: http://www.w3.org/2004/03/trix/
"""

[docs]    def __init__(
self,
store: Union[Store, str] = "default",
identifier: Optional[Union[_ContextIdentifierType, str]] = None,
namespace_manager: Optional[NamespaceManager] = None,
base: Optional[str] = None,
bind_namespaces: _NamespaceSetString = "rdflib",
):
super(Graph, self).__init__()
self.base = base
self.__identifier: _ContextIdentifierType
self.__identifier = identifier or BNode()  # type: ignore[assignment]
if not isinstance(self.__identifier, IdentifiedNode):
self.__identifier = URIRef(self.__identifier)  # type: ignore[unreachable]
self.__store: Store
if not isinstance(store, Store):
# TODO: error handling
self.__store = store = plugin.get(store, Store)()
else:
self.__store = store
self.__namespace_manager = namespace_manager
self._bind_namespaces = bind_namespaces
self.context_aware = False
self.formula_aware = False
self.default_union = False

@property
def store(self) -> Store:
return self.__store

@property
def identifier(self) -> _ContextIdentifierType:
return self.__identifier

@property
def namespace_manager(self) -> NamespaceManager:
"""
this graph's namespace-manager
"""
if self.__namespace_manager is None:
self.__namespace_manager = NamespaceManager(self, self._bind_namespaces)
return self.__namespace_manager

@namespace_manager.setter
def namespace_manager(self, nm: NamespaceManager) -> None:
self.__namespace_manager = nm

[docs]    def __repr__(self) -> str:
return "<Graph identifier=%s (%s)>" % (self.identifier, type(self))

[docs]    def __str__(self) -> str:
if isinstance(self.identifier, URIRef):
return (
"%s a rdfg:Graph;rdflib:storage " + "[a rdflib:Store;rdfs:label '%s']."
) % (self.identifier.n3(), self.store.__class__.__name__)
else:
return (
"[a rdfg:Graph;rdflib:storage " + "[a rdflib:Store;rdfs:label '%s']]."
) % self.store.__class__.__name__

[docs]    def toPython(self: _GraphT) -> _GraphT:  # noqa: N802
return self

[docs]    def destroy(self: _GraphT, configuration: str) -> _GraphT:
"""Destroy the store identified by ``configuration`` if supported"""
self.__store.destroy(configuration)
return self

# Transactional interfaces (optional)
[docs]    def commit(self: _GraphT) -> _GraphT:
"""Commits active transactions"""
self.__store.commit()
return self

[docs]    def rollback(self: _GraphT) -> _GraphT:
"""Rollback active transactions"""
self.__store.rollback()
return self

[docs]    def open(self, configuration: str, create: bool = False) -> Optional[int]:
"""Open the graph store

Might be necessary for stores that require opening a connection to a
database or acquiring some resource.
"""
return self.__store.open(configuration, create)

[docs]    def close(self, commit_pending_transaction: bool = False) -> None:
"""Close the graph store

Might be necessary for stores that require closing a connection to a
database or releasing some resource.
"""
return self.__store.close(commit_pending_transaction=commit_pending_transaction)

[docs]    def add(self: _GraphT, triple: _TripleType) -> _GraphT:
"""Add a triple with self as context"""
s, p, o = triple
assert isinstance(s, Node), "Subject %s must be an rdflib term" % (s,)
assert isinstance(p, Node), "Predicate %s must be an rdflib term" % (p,)
assert isinstance(o, Node), "Object %s must be an rdflib term" % (o,)
return self

"""Add a sequence of triple with context"""

(s, p, o, c)
for s, p, o, c in quads
if isinstance(c, Graph)
and c.identifier is self.identifier
and _assertnode(s, p, o)
)
return self

[docs]    def remove(self: _GraphT, triple: _TriplePatternType) -> _GraphT:
"""Remove a triple from the graph

If the triple does not provide a context attribute, removes the triple
from all contexts.
"""
self.__store.remove(triple, context=self)
return self

def triples(
self,
triple: _TriplePatternType,
) -> Generator[_TripleType, None, None]: ...

def triples(
self,
triple: _TriplePathPatternType,
) -> Generator[_TriplePathType, None, None]: ...

def triples(
self,
triple: _TripleSelectorType,
) -> Generator[_TripleOrTriplePathType, None, None]: ...

[docs]    def triples(
self,
triple: _TripleSelectorType,
) -> Generator[_TripleOrTriplePathType, None, None]:
"""Generator over the triple store

Returns triples that match the given triple pattern. If triple pattern
does not provide a context, all contexts will be searched.
"""
s, p, o = triple
if isinstance(p, Path):
for _s, _o in p.eval(self, s, o):
yield _s, p, _o
else:
for (_s, _p, _o), cg in self.__store.triples((s, p, o), context=self):
yield _s, _p, _o

[docs]    def __getitem__(self, item):
"""
A graph can be "sliced" as a shortcut for the triples method
The python slice syntax is (ab)used for specifying triples.
A generator over matches is returned,
the returned tuples include only the parts not given

>>> import rdflib
>>> g = rdflib.Graph()
>>> g.add((rdflib.URIRef("urn:bob"), namespace.RDFS.label, rdflib.Literal("Bob"))) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>

>>> list(g[rdflib.URIRef("urn:bob")]) # all triples about bob
[(rdflib.term.URIRef('http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label'), rdflib.term.Literal('Bob'))]

>>> list(g[:namespace.RDFS.label]) # all label triples
[(rdflib.term.URIRef('urn:bob'), rdflib.term.Literal('Bob'))]

>>> list(g[::rdflib.Literal("Bob")]) # all triples with bob as object
[(rdflib.term.URIRef('urn:bob'), rdflib.term.URIRef('http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label'))]

Combined with SPARQL paths, more complex queries can be
written concisely:

Name of all Bobs friends:

g[bob : FOAF.knows/FOAF.name ]

Some label for Bob:

g[bob : DC.title|FOAF.name|RDFS.label]

All friends and friends of friends of Bob

g[bob : FOAF.knows * "+"]

etc.

"""

if isinstance(item, slice):
s, p, o = item.start, item.stop, item.step
if s is None and p is None and o is None:
return self.triples((s, p, o))
elif s is None and p is None:
return self.subject_predicates(o)
elif s is None and o is None:
return self.subject_objects(p)
elif p is None and o is None:
return self.predicate_objects(s)
elif s is None:
return self.subjects(p, o)
elif p is None:
return self.predicates(s, o)
elif o is None:
return self.objects(s, p)
else:
# all given
return (s, p, o) in self

elif isinstance(item, (Path, Node)):
# type error: Argument 1 to "predicate_objects" of "Graph" has incompatible type "Union[Path, Node]"; expected "Optional[Node]"
return self.predicate_objects(item)  # type: ignore[arg-type]

else:
raise TypeError(
"You can only index a graph by a single rdflib term or path, or a slice of rdflib terms."
)

[docs]    def __len__(self) -> int:
"""Returns the number of triples in the graph

If context is specified then the number of triples in the context is
"""
# type error: Unexpected keyword argument "context" for "__len__" of "Store"
return self.__store.__len__(context=self)  # type: ignore[call-arg]

[docs]    def __iter__(self) -> Generator[_TripleType, None, None]:
"""Iterates over all triples in the store"""
return self.triples((None, None, None))

[docs]    def __contains__(self, triple: _TripleSelectorType) -> bool:
"""Support for 'triple in graph' syntax"""
for triple in self.triples(triple):
return True
return False

[docs]    def __hash__(self) -> int:
return hash(self.identifier)

[docs]    def __cmp__(self, other) -> int:
if other is None:
return -1
elif isinstance(other, Graph):
return (self.identifier > other.identifier) - (
self.identifier < other.identifier
)
else:
# Note if None is considered equivalent to owl:Nothing
# Then perhaps a graph with length 0 should be considered
# equivalent to None (if compared to it)?
return 1

[docs]    def __eq__(self, other) -> bool:
return isinstance(other, Graph) and self.identifier == other.identifier

[docs]    def __lt__(self, other) -> bool:
return (other is None) or (
isinstance(other, Graph) and self.identifier < other.identifier
)

[docs]    def __le__(self, other: Graph) -> bool:
return self < other or self == other

[docs]    def __gt__(self, other) -> bool:
return (isinstance(other, Graph) and self.identifier > other.identifier) or (
other is not None
)

[docs]    def __ge__(self, other: Graph) -> bool:
return self > other or self == other

[docs]    def __iadd__(self: _GraphT, other: Iterable[_TripleType]) -> _GraphT:
"""Add all triples in Graph other to Graph.
BNode IDs are not changed."""
self.addN((s, p, o, self) for s, p, o in other)
return self

[docs]    def __isub__(self: _GraphT, other: Iterable[_TripleType]) -> _GraphT:
"""Subtract all triples in Graph other from Graph.
BNode IDs are not changed."""
for triple in other:
self.remove(triple)
return self

[docs]    def __add__(self, other: Graph) -> Graph:
"""Set-theoretic union
BNode IDs are not changed."""
try:
retval = type(self)()
except TypeError:
retval = Graph()
for prefix, uri in set(list(self.namespaces()) + list(other.namespaces())):
retval.bind(prefix, uri)
for x in self:
for y in other:
return retval

[docs]    def __mul__(self, other: Graph) -> Graph:
"""Set-theoretic intersection.
BNode IDs are not changed."""
try:
retval = type(self)()
except TypeError:
retval = Graph()
for x in other:
if x in self:
return retval

[docs]    def __sub__(self, other: Graph) -> Graph:
"""Set-theoretic difference.
BNode IDs are not changed."""
try:
retval = type(self)()
except TypeError:
retval = Graph()
for x in self:
if x not in other:
return retval

[docs]    def __xor__(self, other: Graph) -> Graph:
"""Set-theoretic XOR.
BNode IDs are not changed."""
return (self - other) + (other - self)

__and__ = __mul__

# Conv. methods

[docs]    def set(
self: _GraphT, triple: Tuple[_SubjectType, _PredicateType, _ObjectType]
) -> _GraphT:
"""Convenience method to update the value of object

Remove any existing triples for subject and predicate before adding
(subject, predicate, object).
"""
(subject, predicate, object_) = triple
assert (
subject is not None
), "s can't be None in .set([s,p,o]), as it would remove (*, p, *)"
assert (
predicate is not None
), "p can't be None in .set([s,p,o]), as it would remove (s, *, *)"
self.remove((subject, predicate, None))
return self

[docs]    def subjects(
self,
predicate: Union[None, Path, _PredicateType] = None,
object: Optional[_ObjectType] = None,
unique: bool = False,
) -> Generator[_SubjectType, None, None]:
"""A generator of (optionally unique) subjects with the given
predicate and object"""
if not unique:
for s, p, o in self.triples((None, predicate, object)):
yield s
else:
subs = set()
for s, p, o in self.triples((None, predicate, object)):
if s not in subs:
yield s
try:
except MemoryError as e:
logger.error(
f"{e}. Consider not setting parameter 'unique' to True"
)
raise

[docs]    def predicates(
self,
subject: Optional[_SubjectType] = None,
object: Optional[_ObjectType] = None,
unique: bool = False,
) -> Generator[_PredicateType, None, None]:
"""A generator of (optionally unique) predicates with the given
subject and object"""
if not unique:
for s, p, o in self.triples((subject, None, object)):
yield p
else:
preds = set()
for s, p, o in self.triples((subject, None, object)):
if p not in preds:
yield p
try:
except MemoryError as e:
logger.error(
f"{e}. Consider not setting parameter 'unique' to True"
)
raise

[docs]    def objects(
self,
subject: Optional[_SubjectType] = None,
predicate: Union[None, Path, _PredicateType] = None,
unique: bool = False,
) -> Generator[_ObjectType, None, None]:
"""A generator of (optionally unique) objects with the given
subject and predicate"""
if not unique:
for s, p, o in self.triples((subject, predicate, None)):
yield o
else:
objs = set()
for s, p, o in self.triples((subject, predicate, None)):
if o not in objs:
yield o
try:
except MemoryError as e:
logger.error(
f"{e}. Consider not setting parameter 'unique' to True"
)
raise

[docs]    def subject_predicates(
self, object: Optional[_ObjectType] = None, unique: bool = False
) -> Generator[Tuple[_SubjectType, _PredicateType], None, None]:
"""A generator of (optionally unique) (subject, predicate) tuples
for the given object"""
if not unique:
for s, p, o in self.triples((None, None, object)):
yield s, p
else:
subj_preds = set()
for s, p, o in self.triples((None, None, object)):
if (s, p) not in subj_preds:
yield s, p
try:
except MemoryError as e:
logger.error(
f"{e}. Consider not setting parameter 'unique' to True"
)
raise

[docs]    def subject_objects(
self,
predicate: Union[None, Path, _PredicateType] = None,
unique: bool = False,
) -> Generator[Tuple[_SubjectType, _ObjectType], None, None]:
"""A generator of (optionally unique) (subject, object) tuples
for the given predicate"""
if not unique:
for s, p, o in self.triples((None, predicate, None)):
yield s, o
else:
subj_objs = set()
for s, p, o in self.triples((None, predicate, None)):
if (s, o) not in subj_objs:
yield s, o
try:
except MemoryError as e:
logger.error(
f"{e}. Consider not setting parameter 'unique' to True"
)
raise

[docs]    def predicate_objects(
self, subject: Optional[_SubjectType] = None, unique: bool = False
) -> Generator[Tuple[_PredicateType, _ObjectType], None, None]:
"""A generator of (optionally unique) (predicate, object) tuples
for the given subject"""
if not unique:
for s, p, o in self.triples((subject, None, None)):
yield p, o
else:
pred_objs = set()
for s, p, o in self.triples((subject, None, None)):
if (p, o) not in pred_objs:
yield p, o
try:
except MemoryError as e:
logger.error(
f"{e}. Consider not setting parameter 'unique' to True"
)
raise

[docs]    def triples_choices(
self,
triple: Union[
Tuple[List[_SubjectType], _PredicateType, _ObjectType],
Tuple[_SubjectType, List[_PredicateType], _ObjectType],
Tuple[_SubjectType, _PredicateType, List[_ObjectType]],
],
context: Optional[_ContextType] = None,
) -> Generator[_TripleType, None, None]:
subject, predicate, object_ = triple
# type error: Argument 1 to "triples_choices" of "Store" has incompatible type "Tuple[Union[List[Node], Node], Union[Node, List[Node]], Union[Node, List[Node]]]"; expected "Union[Tuple[List[Node], Node, Node], Tuple[Node, List[Node], Node], Tuple[Node, Node, List[Node]]]"
# type error note: unpacking discards type info
for (s, p, o), cg in self.store.triples_choices(
(subject, predicate, object_), context=self  # type: ignore[arg-type]
):
yield s, p, o

def value(
self,
subject: None = ...,
predicate: None = ...,
object: Optional[_ObjectType] = ...,
default: Optional[Node] = ...,
any: bool = ...,
) -> None: ...

def value(
self,
subject: Optional[_SubjectType] = ...,
predicate: None = ...,
object: None = ...,
default: Optional[Node] = ...,
any: bool = ...,
) -> None: ...

def value(
self,
subject: None = ...,
predicate: Optional[_PredicateType] = ...,
object: None = ...,
default: Optional[Node] = ...,
any: bool = ...,
) -> None: ...

def value(
self,
subject: Optional[_SubjectType] = ...,
predicate: Optional[_PredicateType] = ...,
object: Optional[_ObjectType] = ...,
default: Optional[Node] = ...,
any: bool = ...,
) -> Optional[Node]: ...

[docs]    def value(
self,
subject: Optional[_SubjectType] = None,
predicate: Optional[_PredicateType] = RDF.value,
object: Optional[_ObjectType] = None,
default: Optional[Node] = None,
any: bool = True,
) -> Optional[Node]:
"""Get a value for a pair of two criteria

Exactly one of subject, predicate, object must be None. Useful if one
knows that there may only be one value.

It is one of those situations that occur a lot, hence this
'macro' like utility

Parameters:
subject, predicate, object  -- exactly one must be None
default -- value to be returned if no values found
any -- if True, return any value in the case there is more than one,
else, raise UniquenessError
"""
retval = default

if (
(subject is None and predicate is None)
or (subject is None and object is None)
or (predicate is None and object is None)
):
return None

if object is None:
values = self.objects(subject, predicate)
if subject is None:
values = self.subjects(predicate, object)
if predicate is None:
values = self.predicates(subject, object)

try:
retval = next(values)
except StopIteration:
retval = default
else:
if any is False:
try:
next(values)
msg = (
"While trying to find a value for (%s, %s, %s) the"
" following multiple values where found:\n"
% (subject, predicate, object)
)
triples = self.store.triples((subject, predicate, object), None)
for (s, p, o), contexts in triples:
msg += "(%s, %s, %s)\n (contexts: %s)\n" % (
s,
p,
o,
list(contexts),
)
raise exceptions.UniquenessError(msg)
except StopIteration:
pass
return retval

[docs]    def items(self, list: Node) -> Generator[Node, None, None]:
"""Generator over all items in the resource specified by list

list is an RDF collection.
"""
chain = set([list])
while list:
item = self.value(list, RDF.first)
if item is not None:
yield item
# type error: Incompatible types in assignment (expression has type "Optional[Node]", variable has type "Node")
list = self.value(list, RDF.rest)  # type: ignore[assignment]
if list in chain:
raise ValueError("List contains a recursive rdf:rest reference")

[docs]    def transitiveClosure(  # noqa: N802
self,
func: Callable[[_TCArgT, Graph], Iterable[_TCArgT]],
arg: _TCArgT,
seen: Optional[Dict[_TCArgT, int]] = None,
):
"""
Generates transitive closure of a user-defined
function against the graph

>>> from rdflib.collection import Collection
>>> g=Graph()
>>> a=BNode("foo")
>>> b=BNode("bar")
>>> c=BNode("baz")
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> def topList(node,g):
...    for s in g.subjects(RDF.rest, node):
...       yield s
>>> def reverseList(node,g):
...    for f in g.objects(node, RDF.first):
...       print(f)
...    for s in g.subjects(RDF.rest, node):
...       yield s

>>> [rt for rt in g.transitiveClosure(
...     topList,RDF.nil)] # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[rdflib.term.BNode('baz'),
rdflib.term.BNode('bar'),
rdflib.term.BNode('foo')]

>>> [rt for rt in g.transitiveClosure(
...     reverseList,RDF.nil)] # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#comment
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type
[rdflib.term.BNode('baz'),
rdflib.term.BNode('bar'),
rdflib.term.BNode('foo')]

"""
if seen is None:
seen = {}
elif arg in seen:
return
seen[arg] = 1
for rt in func(arg, self):
yield rt
for rt_2 in self.transitiveClosure(func, rt, seen):
yield rt_2

[docs]    def transitive_objects(
self,
subject: Optional[_SubjectType],
predicate: Optional[_PredicateType],
remember: Optional[Dict[Optional[_SubjectType], int]] = None,
) -> Generator[Optional[_SubjectType], None, None]:
"""Transitively generate objects for the ``predicate`` relationship

Generated objects belong to the depth first transitive closure of the
``predicate`` relationship starting at ``subject``.
"""
if remember is None:
remember = {}
if subject in remember:
return
remember[subject] = 1
yield subject
for object in self.objects(subject, predicate):
for o in self.transitive_objects(object, predicate, remember):
yield o

[docs]    def transitive_subjects(
self,
predicate: Optional[_PredicateType],
object: Optional[_ObjectType],
remember: Optional[Dict[Optional[_ObjectType], int]] = None,
) -> Generator[Optional[_ObjectType], None, None]:
"""Transitively generate subjects for the ``predicate`` relationship

Generated subjects belong to the depth first transitive closure of the
``predicate`` relationship starting at ``object``.
"""
if remember is None:
remember = {}
if object in remember:
return
remember[object] = 1
yield object
for subject in self.subjects(predicate, object):
for s in self.transitive_subjects(predicate, subject, remember):
yield s

[docs]    def qname(self, uri: str) -> str:
return self.namespace_manager.qname(uri)

[docs]    def compute_qname(self, uri: str, generate: bool = True) -> Tuple[str, URIRef, str]:
return self.namespace_manager.compute_qname(uri, generate)

[docs]    def bind(
self,
prefix: Optional[str],
namespace: Any,  # noqa: F811
override: bool = True,
replace: bool = False,
) -> None:
"""Bind prefix to namespace

If override is True will bind namespace to given prefix even
if namespace was already bound to a different prefix.

if replace, replace any existing prefix with the new namespace

for example:  graph.bind("foaf", "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/")

"""
# TODO FIXME: This method's behaviour should be simplified and made
# more robust. If the method cannot do what it is asked it should raise
# an exception, it is also unclear why this method has all the
# different modes. It seems to just make it more complex to use, maybe
# it should be clarified when someone will need to use override=False
# and replace=False. And also why silent failure here is preferred over
# raising an exception.
return self.namespace_manager.bind(
prefix, namespace, override=override, replace=replace
)

[docs]    def namespaces(self) -> Generator[Tuple[str, URIRef], None, None]:
"""Generator over all the prefix, namespace tuples"""
for prefix, namespace in self.namespace_manager.namespaces():  # noqa: F402
yield prefix, namespace

[docs]    def absolutize(self, uri: str, defrag: int = 1) -> URIRef:
"""Turn uri into an absolute URI if it's not one already"""
return self.namespace_manager.absolutize(uri, defrag)

# no destination and non-None positional encoding
def serialize(
self,
destination: None,
format: str,
base: Optional[str],
encoding: str,
**args: Any,
) -> bytes: ...

# no destination and non-None keyword encoding
def serialize(
self,
destination: None = ...,
format: str = ...,
base: Optional[str] = ...,
*,
encoding: str,
**args: Any,
) -> bytes: ...

# no destination and None encoding
def serialize(
self,
destination: None = ...,
format: str = ...,
base: Optional[str] = ...,
encoding: None = ...,
**args: Any,
) -> str: ...

# non-None destination
def serialize(
self,
destination: Union[str, pathlib.PurePath, IO[bytes]],
format: str = ...,
base: Optional[str] = ...,
encoding: Optional[str] = ...,
**args: Any,
) -> Graph: ...

# fallback
def serialize(
self,
destination: Optional[Union[str, pathlib.PurePath, IO[bytes]]] = ...,
format: str = ...,
base: Optional[str] = ...,
encoding: Optional[str] = ...,
**args: Any,
) -> Union[bytes, str, Graph]: ...

[docs]    def serialize(
self: _GraphT,
destination: Optional[Union[str, pathlib.PurePath, IO[bytes]]] = None,
format: str = "turtle",
base: Optional[str] = None,
encoding: Optional[str] = None,
**args: Any,
) -> Union[bytes, str, _GraphT]:
"""
Serialize the graph.

:param destination:
The destination to serialize the graph to. This can be a path as a
:class:`str` or :class:`~pathlib.PurePath` object, or it can be a
:class:`~typing.IO` ``[bytes]`` like object. If this parameter is not
supplied the serialized graph will be returned.
:param format:
The format that the output should be written in. This value
references a :class:`~rdflib.serializer.Serializer` plugin. Format
support can be extended with plugins, but ``"xml"``, ``"n3"``,
``"turtle"``, ``"nt"``, ``"pretty-xml"``, ``"trix"``, ``"trig"``,
``"nquads"``, ``"json-ld"`` and ``"hext"`` are built in. Defaults to
``"turtle"``.
:param base:
The base IRI for formats that support it. For the turtle format this
will be used as the ``@base`` directive.
:param encoding: Encoding of output.
:param args:
Additional arguments to pass to the
:class:`~rdflib.serializer.Serializer` that will be used.
:return: The serialized graph if ``destination`` is `None`. The
serialized graph is returned as `str` if no encoding is specified,
and as `bytes` if an encoding is specified.
:rtype: :class:`bytes` if ``destination`` is `None` and ``encoding`` is not `None`.
:rtype: :class:`str` if ``destination`` is `None` and ``encoding`` is `None`.
:return: ``self`` (i.e. the :class:`~rdflib.graph.Graph` instance) if
``destination`` is not `None`.
:rtype: :class:`~rdflib.graph.Graph` if ``destination`` is not `None`.
"""

# if base is not given as attribute use the base set for the graph
if base is None:
base = self.base

serializer = plugin.get(format, Serializer)(self)
stream: IO[bytes]
if destination is None:
stream = BytesIO()
if encoding is None:
serializer.serialize(stream, base=base, encoding="utf-8", **args)
return stream.getvalue().decode("utf-8")
else:
serializer.serialize(stream, base=base, encoding=encoding, **args)
return stream.getvalue()
if hasattr(destination, "write"):
stream = cast(IO[bytes], destination)
serializer.serialize(stream, base=base, encoding=encoding, **args)
else:
if isinstance(destination, pathlib.PurePath):
os_path = str(destination)
else:
location = cast(str, destination)
scheme, netloc, path, params, _query, fragment = urlparse(location)
if scheme == "file":
if netloc != "":
raise ValueError(
f"the file URI {location!r} has an authority component which is not supported"
)
os_path = url2pathname(path)
else:
os_path = location
with open(os_path, "wb") as stream:
serializer.serialize(stream, encoding=encoding, **args)
return self

[docs]    def print(
self,
format: str = "turtle",
encoding: str = "utf-8",
out: Optional[TextIO] = None,
) -> None:
print(
self.serialize(None, format=format, encoding=encoding).decode(encoding),
file=out,
flush=True,
)

[docs]    def parse(
self,
source: Optional[
Union[IO[bytes], TextIO, InputSource, str, bytes, pathlib.PurePath]
] = None,
publicID: Optional[str] = None,  # noqa: N803
format: Optional[str] = None,
location: Optional[str] = None,
file: Optional[Union[BinaryIO, TextIO]] = None,
data: Optional[Union[str, bytes]] = None,
**args: Any,
) -> Graph:
"""
Parse an RDF source adding the resulting triples to the Graph.

The source is specified using one of source, location, file or data.

.. caution::

This method can access directly or indirectly requested network or
file resources, for example, when parsing JSON-LD documents with
``@context`` directives that point to a network location.

When processing untrusted or potentially malicious documents,
measures should be taken to restrict network and file access.

For information on available security measures, see the RDFLib
:doc:`Security Considerations </security_considerations>`
documentation.

:param source: An `InputSource`, file-like object, `Path` like object,
or string. In the case of a string the string is the location of the
source.
:param location: A string indicating the relative or absolute URL of the
source. `Graph`'s absolutize method is used if a relative location
is specified.
:param file: A file-like object.
:param data: A string containing the data to be parsed.
:param format: Used if format can not be determined from source, e.g.
file extension or Media Type. Defaults to text/turtle. Format
support can be extended with plugins, but "xml", "n3" (use for
turtle), "nt" & "trix" are built in.
:param publicID: the logical URI to use as the document base. If None
specified the document location is used (at least in the case where
there is a document location). This is used as the base URI when
resolving relative URIs in the source document, as defined in `IETF
RFC 3986
<https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc3986#section-5.1.4>`_,
given the source document does not define a base URI.
:return: ``self``, i.e. the :class:`~rdflib.graph.Graph` instance.

Examples:

>>> my_data = '''
... <rdf:RDF
...   xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
...   xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
... >
...   <rdf:Description>
...     <rdfs:label>Example</rdfs:label>
...     <rdfs:comment>This is really just an example.</rdfs:comment>
...   </rdf:Description>
... </rdf:RDF>
... '''
>>> import os, tempfile
>>> fd, file_name = tempfile.mkstemp()
>>> f = os.fdopen(fd, "w")
>>> dummy = f.write(my_data)  # Returns num bytes written
>>> f.close()

>>> g = Graph()
>>> result = g.parse(data=my_data, format="application/rdf+xml")
>>> len(g)
2

>>> g = Graph()
>>> result = g.parse(location=file_name, format="application/rdf+xml")
>>> len(g)
2

>>> g = Graph()
>>> with open(file_name, "r") as f:
...     result = g.parse(f, format="application/rdf+xml")
>>> len(g)
2

>>> os.remove(file_name)

>>> # default turtle parsing
>>> result = g.parse(data="<http://example.com/a> <http://example.com/a> <http://example.com/a> .")
>>> len(g)
3

"""

source = create_input_source(
source=source,
publicID=publicID,
location=location,
file=file,
data=data,
format=format,
)
if format is None:
format = source.content_type
could_not_guess_format = False
if format is None:
if (
hasattr(source, "file")
and getattr(source.file, "name", None)
and isinstance(source.file.name, str)
):
format = rdflib.util.guess_format(source.file.name)
if format is None:
format = "turtle"
could_not_guess_format = True
try:
parser = plugin.get(format, Parser)()
except plugin.PluginException:
# Handle the case when a URLInputSource returns RDF but with the headers
# as a format that does not exist in the plugin system.
# Use guess_format to guess the format based on the input's file suffix.
format = rdflib.util.guess_format(
source if not isinstance(source, InputSource) else str(source)
)
if format is None:
raise
parser = plugin.get(format, Parser)()
try:
# TODO FIXME: Parser.parse should have **kwargs argument.
parser.parse(source, self, **args)
except SyntaxError as se:
if could_not_guess_format:
raise ParserError(
"Could not guess RDF format for %r from file extension so tried Turtle but failed."
"You can explicitly specify format using the format argument."
% source
)
else:
raise se
finally:
if source.auto_close:
source.close()
return self

[docs]    def query(
self,
query_object: Union[str, Query],
processor: Union[str, query.Processor] = "sparql",
result: Union[str, Type[query.Result]] = "sparql",
initNs: Optional[Mapping[str, Any]] = None,  # noqa: N803
initBindings: Optional[Mapping[str, Identifier]] = None,  # noqa: N803
use_store_provided: bool = True,
**kwargs: Any,
) -> query.Result:
"""
Query this graph.

A type of 'prepared queries' can be realised by providing initial
variable bindings with initBindings

Initial namespaces are used to resolve prefixes used in the query, if
none are given, the namespaces from the graph's namespace manager are
used.

.. caution::

This method can access indirectly requested network endpoints, for
example, query processing will attempt to access network endpoints
specified in ``SERVICE`` directives.

When processing untrusted or potentially malicious queries, measures
should be taken to restrict network and file access.

For information on available security measures, see the RDFLib
:doc:`Security Considerations </security_considerations>`
documentation.

:returntype: :class:`~rdflib.query.Result`

"""

initBindings = initBindings or {}  # noqa: N806
initNs = initNs or dict(self.namespaces())  # noqa: N806

if self.default_union:
query_graph = "__UNION__"
elif isinstance(self, ConjunctiveGraph):
query_graph = self.default_context.identifier
else:
query_graph = self.identifier
if hasattr(self.store, "query") and use_store_provided:
try:
return self.store.query(
query_object,
initNs,
initBindings,
query_graph,
**kwargs,
)
except NotImplementedError:
pass  # store has no own implementation

if not isinstance(result, query.Result):
result = plugin.get(cast(str, result), query.Result)
if not isinstance(processor, query.Processor):
processor = plugin.get(processor, query.Processor)(self)

# type error: Argument 1 to "Result" has incompatible type "Mapping[str, Any]"; expected "str"
return result(processor.query(query_object, initBindings, initNs, **kwargs))  # type: ignore[arg-type]

[docs]    def update(
self,
update_object: Union[Update, str],
processor: Union[str, rdflib.query.UpdateProcessor] = "sparql",
initNs: Optional[Mapping[str, Any]] = None,  # noqa: N803
initBindings: Optional[Mapping[str, Identifier]] = None,  # noqa: N803
use_store_provided: bool = True,
**kwargs: Any,
) -> None:
"""
Update this graph with the given update query.

.. caution::

This method can access indirectly requested network endpoints, for
example, query processing will attempt to access network endpoints
specified in ``SERVICE`` directives.

When processing untrusted or potentially malicious queries, measures
should be taken to restrict network and file access.

For information on available security measures, see the RDFLib
:doc:`Security Considerations </security_considerations>`
documentation.
"""
initBindings = initBindings or {}  # noqa: N806
initNs = initNs or dict(self.namespaces())  # noqa: N806

if self.default_union:
query_graph = "__UNION__"
elif isinstance(self, ConjunctiveGraph):
query_graph = self.default_context.identifier
else:
query_graph = self.identifier

if hasattr(self.store, "update") and use_store_provided:
try:
return self.store.update(
update_object,
initNs,
initBindings,
query_graph,
**kwargs,
)
except NotImplementedError:
pass  # store has no own implementation

if not isinstance(processor, query.UpdateProcessor):
processor = plugin.get(processor, query.UpdateProcessor)(self)

return processor.update(update_object, initBindings, initNs, **kwargs)

[docs]    def n3(self, namespace_manager: Optional[NamespaceManager] = None) -> str:
"""Return an n3 identifier for the Graph"""
return "[%s]" % self.identifier.n3(namespace_manager=namespace_manager)

[docs]    def __reduce__(self) -> Tuple[Type[Graph], Tuple[Store, _ContextIdentifierType]]:
return (
Graph,
(
self.store,
self.identifier,
),
)

[docs]    def isomorphic(self, other: Graph) -> bool:
"""
does a very basic check if these graphs are the same
If no BNodes are involved, this is accurate.

See rdflib.compare for a correct implementation of isomorphism checks
"""
# TODO: this is only an approximation.
if len(self) != len(other):
return False
for s, p, o in self:
if not isinstance(s, BNode) and not isinstance(o, BNode):
if not (s, p, o) in other:  # noqa: E713
return False
for s, p, o in other:
if not isinstance(s, BNode) and not isinstance(o, BNode):
if not (s, p, o) in self:  # noqa: E713
return False
# TODO: very well could be a false positive at this point yet.
return True

[docs]    def connected(self) -> bool:
"""Check if the Graph is connected

The Graph is considered undirectional.

Performs a search on the Graph, starting from a random node. Then
iteratively goes depth-first through the triplets where the node is
subject and object. Return True if all nodes have been visited and
False if it cannot continue and there are still unvisited nodes left.
"""
all_nodes = list(self.all_nodes())
discovered = []

# take a random one, could also always take the first one, doesn't
# really matter.
if not all_nodes:
return False

visiting = [all_nodes[random.randrange(len(all_nodes))]]
while visiting:
x = visiting.pop()
if x not in discovered:
discovered.append(x)
for new_x in self.objects(subject=x):
if new_x not in discovered and new_x not in visiting:
visiting.append(new_x)
for new_x in self.subjects(object=x):
if new_x not in discovered and new_x not in visiting:
visiting.append(new_x)

# optimisation by only considering length, since no new objects can
# be introduced anywhere.
if len(all_nodes) == len(discovered):
return True
else:
return False

[docs]    def all_nodes(self) -> Set[Node]:
res = set(self.objects())
res.update(self.subjects())
return res

[docs]    def collection(self, identifier: _SubjectType) -> Collection:
"""Create a new ``Collection`` instance.

Parameters:

- ``identifier``: a URIRef or BNode instance.

Example::

>>> graph = Graph()
>>> uri = URIRef("http://example.org/resource")
>>> collection = graph.collection(uri)
>>> assert isinstance(collection, Collection)
>>> assert collection.uri is uri
>>> assert collection.graph is graph
>>> collection += [ Literal(1), Literal(2) ]
"""

return Collection(self, identifier)

[docs]    def resource(self, identifier: Union[Node, str]) -> Resource:
"""Create a new ``Resource`` instance.

Parameters:

- ``identifier``: a URIRef or BNode instance.

Example::

>>> graph = Graph()
>>> uri = URIRef("http://example.org/resource")
>>> resource = graph.resource(uri)
>>> assert isinstance(resource, Resource)
>>> assert resource.identifier is uri
>>> assert resource.graph is graph

"""
if not isinstance(identifier, Node):
identifier = URIRef(identifier)
return Resource(self, identifier)

def _process_skolem_tuples(
self, target: Graph, func: Callable[[_TripleType], _TripleType]
) -> None:
for t in self.triples((None, None, None)):

[docs]    def skolemize(
self,
new_graph: Optional[Graph] = None,
bnode: Optional[BNode] = None,
authority: Optional[str] = None,
basepath: Optional[str] = None,
) -> Graph:
def do_skolemize(bnode: BNode, t: _TripleType) -> _TripleType:
(s, p, o) = t
if s == bnode:
if TYPE_CHECKING:
assert isinstance(s, BNode)
s = s.skolemize(authority=authority, basepath=basepath)
if o == bnode:
if TYPE_CHECKING:
assert isinstance(o, BNode)
o = o.skolemize(authority=authority, basepath=basepath)
return s, p, o

def do_skolemize2(t: _TripleType) -> _TripleType:
(s, p, o) = t
if isinstance(s, BNode):
s = s.skolemize(authority=authority, basepath=basepath)
if isinstance(o, BNode):
o = o.skolemize(authority=authority, basepath=basepath)
return s, p, o

retval = Graph() if new_graph is None else new_graph

if bnode is None:
self._process_skolem_tuples(retval, do_skolemize2)
elif isinstance(bnode, BNode):
# type error: Argument 1 to "do_skolemize" has incompatible type "Optional[BNode]"; expected "BNode"
self._process_skolem_tuples(retval, lambda t: do_skolemize(bnode, t))  # type: ignore[arg-type]

return retval

[docs]    def de_skolemize(
self, new_graph: Optional[Graph] = None, uriref: Optional[URIRef] = None
) -> Graph:
def do_de_skolemize(uriref: URIRef, t: _TripleType) -> _TripleType:
(s, p, o) = t
if s == uriref:
if TYPE_CHECKING:
assert isinstance(s, URIRef)
s = s.de_skolemize()
if o == uriref:
if TYPE_CHECKING:
assert isinstance(o, URIRef)
o = o.de_skolemize()
return s, p, o

def do_de_skolemize2(t: _TripleType) -> _TripleType:
(s, p, o) = t

if RDFLibGenid._is_rdflib_skolem(s):
# type error: Argument 1 to "RDFLibGenid" has incompatible type "Node"; expected "str"
s = RDFLibGenid(s).de_skolemize()  # type: ignore[arg-type]
elif Genid._is_external_skolem(s):
# type error: Argument 1 to "Genid" has incompatible type "Node"; expected "str"
s = Genid(s).de_skolemize()  # type: ignore[arg-type]

if RDFLibGenid._is_rdflib_skolem(o):
# type error: Argument 1 to "RDFLibGenid" has incompatible type "Node"; expected "str"
o = RDFLibGenid(o).de_skolemize()  # type: ignore[arg-type]
elif Genid._is_external_skolem(o):
# type error: Argument 1 to "Genid" has incompatible type "Node"; expected "str"
o = Genid(o).de_skolemize()  # type: ignore[arg-type]

return s, p, o

retval = Graph() if new_graph is None else new_graph

if uriref is None:
self._process_skolem_tuples(retval, do_de_skolemize2)
elif isinstance(uriref, Genid):
# type error: Argument 1 to "do_de_skolemize" has incompatible type "Optional[URIRef]"; expected "URIRef"
self._process_skolem_tuples(retval, lambda t: do_de_skolemize(uriref, t))  # type: ignore[arg-type]

return retval

[docs]    def cbd(
self, resource: _SubjectType, *, target_graph: Optional[Graph] = None
) -> Graph:
"""Retrieves the Concise Bounded Description of a Resource from a Graph

Concise Bounded Description (CBD) is defined in [1] as:

Given a particular node (the starting node) in a particular RDF graph (the source graph), a subgraph of that
particular graph, taken to comprise a concise bounded description of the resource denoted by the starting node,
can be identified as follows:

1. Include in the subgraph all statements in the source graph where the subject of the statement is the
starting node;

2. Recursively, for all statements identified in the subgraph thus far having a blank node object, include
in the subgraph all statements in the source graph where the subject of the statement is the blank node
in question and which are not already included in the subgraph.

3. Recursively, for all statements included in the subgraph thus far, for all reifications of each statement
in the source graph, include the concise bounded description beginning from the rdf:Statement node of
each reification.

This results in a subgraph where the object nodes are either URI references, literals, or blank nodes not
serving as the subject of any statement in the graph.

[1] https://www.w3.org/Submission/CBD/

:param resource: a URIRef object, of the Resource for queried for
:param target_graph: Optionally, a graph to add the CBD to; otherwise, a new graph is created for the CBD
:return: a Graph, subgraph of self if no graph was provided otherwise the provided graph

"""
if target_graph is None:
subgraph = Graph()
else:
subgraph = target_graph

for s, p, o in self.triples((uri, None, None)):
# recurse 'down' through ll Blank Nodes
if type(o) == BNode and not (o, None, None) in subgraph:  # noqa: E713

# for Rule 3 (reification)
# for any rdf:Statement in the graph with the given URI as the object of rdf:subject,
# get all triples with that rdf:Statement instance as subject

# find any subject s where the predicate is rdf:subject and this uri is the object
# (these subjects are of type rdf:Statement, given the domain of rdf:subject)
for s, p, o in self.triples((None, RDF.subject, uri)):
# find all triples with s as the subject and add these to the subgraph
for s2, p2, o2 in self.triples((s, None, None)):

return subgraph

_ContextType = Graph

[docs]class ConjunctiveGraph(Graph):
"""A ConjunctiveGraph is an (unnamed) aggregation of all the named
graphs in a store.

It has a ``default`` graph, whose name is associated with the
graph throughout its life. :meth:`__init__` can take an identifier
to use as the name of this default graph or it will assign a
BNode.

All methods that add triples work against this default graph.

All queries are carried out against the union of all graphs.
"""

[docs]    def __init__(
self,
store: Union[Store, str] = "default",
identifier: Optional[Union[IdentifiedNode, str]] = None,
default_graph_base: Optional[str] = None,
):
super(ConjunctiveGraph, self).__init__(store, identifier=identifier)
assert self.store.context_aware, (
"ConjunctiveGraph must be backed by" " a context aware store."
)
self.context_aware = True
self.default_union = True  # Conjunctive!
self.default_context: _ContextType = Graph(
store=self.store, identifier=identifier or BNode(), base=default_graph_base
)

[docs]    def __str__(self) -> str:
pattern = (
"[a rdflib:ConjunctiveGraph;rdflib:storage "
"[a rdflib:Store;rdfs:label '%s']]"
)
return pattern % self.store.__class__.__name__

def _spoc(
self,
default: bool = False,

def _spoc(
self,
default: bool = False,

def _spoc(
self,
default: bool = False,
) -> Tuple[None, None, None, Optional[Graph]]: ...

def _spoc(
self,
default: bool = False,

def _spoc(
self,
default: bool = False,

def _spoc(
self,
default: bool = False,

def _spoc(
self,
default: bool = False,
"""
helper method for having methods that support
"""
return (None, None, None, self.default_context if default else None)
c = self.default_context if default else None
# type error: Too many values to unpack (3 expected, 4 provided)
(s, p, o) = triple_or_quad  # type: ignore[misc]
# type error: Need more than 3 values to unpack (4 expected)
(s, p, o, c) = triple_or_quad  # type: ignore[misc]
c = self._graph(c)
return s, p, o, c

"""Support for 'triple/quad in graph' syntax"""
s, p, o, c = self._spoc(triple_or_quad)
for t in self.triples((s, p, o), context=c):
return True
return False

self: _ConjunctiveGraphT,
) -> _ConjunctiveGraphT:
"""

if a triple is given it is added to the default context
"""

s, p, o, c = self._spoc(triple_or_quad, default=True)

_assertnode(s, p, o)

# type error: Argument "context" to "add" of "Store" has incompatible type "Optional[Graph]"; expected "Graph"
self.store.add((s, p, o), context=c, quoted=False)  # type: ignore[arg-type]
return self

def _graph(self, c: Union[Graph, _ContextIdentifierType, str]) -> Graph: ...

def _graph(self, c: None) -> None: ...

def _graph(
self, c: Optional[Union[Graph, _ContextIdentifierType, str]]
) -> Optional[Graph]:
if c is None:
return None
if not isinstance(c, Graph):
return self.get_context(c)
else:
return c

[docs]    def addN(  # noqa: N802
) -> _ConjunctiveGraphT:
"""Add a sequence of triples with context"""

(s, p, o, self._graph(c)) for s, p, o, c in quads if _assertnode(s, p, o)
)
return self

# type error: Argument 1 of "remove" is incompatible with supertype "Graph"; supertype defines the argument type as "Tuple[Optional[Node], Optional[Node], Optional[Node]]"
"""

if a triple is given it is removed from all contexts

a quad is removed from the given context only

"""
s, p, o, c = self._spoc(triple_or_quad)

self.store.remove((s, p, o), context=c)
return self

def triples(
self,
context: Optional[_ContextType] = ...,
) -> Generator[_TripleType, None, None]: ...

def triples(
self,
context: Optional[_ContextType] = ...,
) -> Generator[_TriplePathType, None, None]: ...

def triples(
self,
context: Optional[_ContextType] = ...,
) -> Generator[_TripleOrTriplePathType, None, None]: ...

[docs]    def triples(
self,
context: Optional[_ContextType] = None,
) -> Generator[_TripleOrTriplePathType, None, None]:
"""
Iterate over all the triples in the entire conjunctive graph

For legacy reasons, this can take the context to query either
as a fourth element of the quad, or as the explicit context
keyword parameter. The kw param takes precedence.
"""

s, p, o, c = self._spoc(triple_or_quad)
context = self._graph(context or c)

if self.default_union:
if context == self.default_context:
context = None
else:
if context is None:
context = self.default_context

if isinstance(p, Path):
if context is None:
context = self

for s, o in p.eval(context, s, o):
yield s, p, o
else:
for (s, p, o), cg in self.store.triples((s, p, o), context=context):
yield s, p, o

"""Iterate over all the quads in the entire conjunctive graph"""

s, p, o, c = self._spoc(triple_or_quad)

for (s, p, o), cg in self.store.triples((s, p, o), context=c):
for ctx in cg:
yield s, p, o, ctx

[docs]    def triples_choices(
self,
triple: Union[
Tuple[List[_SubjectType], _PredicateType, _ObjectType],
Tuple[_SubjectType, List[_PredicateType], _ObjectType],
Tuple[_SubjectType, _PredicateType, List[_ObjectType]],
],
context: Optional[_ContextType] = None,
) -> Generator[_TripleType, None, None]:
"""Iterate over all the triples in the entire conjunctive graph"""
s, p, o = triple
if context is None:
if not self.default_union:
context = self.default_context
else:
context = self._graph(context)
# type error: Argument 1 to "triples_choices" of "Store" has incompatible type "Tuple[Union[List[Node], Node], Union[Node, List[Node]], Union[Node, List[Node]]]"; expected "Union[Tuple[List[Node], Node, Node], Tuple[Node, List[Node], Node], Tuple[Node, Node, List[Node]]]"
# type error note: unpacking discards type info
for (s1, p1, o1), cg in self.store.triples_choices((s, p, o), context=context):  # type: ignore[arg-type]
yield s1, p1, o1

[docs]    def __len__(self) -> int:
"""Number of triples in the entire conjunctive graph"""
return self.store.__len__()

[docs]    def contexts(
self, triple: Optional[_TripleType] = None
) -> Generator[_ContextType, None, None]:
"""Iterate over all contexts in the graph

If triple is specified, iterate over all contexts the triple is in.
"""
for context in self.store.contexts(triple):
if isinstance(context, Graph):
# TODO: One of these should never happen and probably
# should raise an exception rather than smoothing over
# the weirdness - see #225
yield context
else:
# type error: Statement is unreachable
yield self.get_context(context)  # type: ignore[unreachable]

[docs]    def get_graph(self, identifier: _ContextIdentifierType) -> Union[Graph, None]:
"""Returns the graph identified by given identifier"""
return [x for x in self.contexts() if x.identifier == identifier][0]

[docs]    def get_context(
self,
identifier: Optional[Union[_ContextIdentifierType, str]],
quoted: bool = False,
base: Optional[str] = None,
) -> Graph:
"""Return a context graph for the given identifier

identifier must be a URIRef or BNode.
"""
return Graph(
store=self.store,
identifier=identifier,
namespace_manager=self.namespace_manager,
base=base,
)

[docs]    def remove_context(self, context: _ContextType) -> None:
"""Removes the given context from the graph"""
self.store.remove((None, None, None), context)

[docs]    def context_id(self, uri: str, context_id: Optional[str] = None) -> URIRef:
"""URI#context"""
uri = uri.split("#", 1)[0]
if context_id is None:
context_id = "#context"
return URIRef(context_id, base=uri)

[docs]    def parse(
self,
source: Optional[
Union[IO[bytes], TextIO, InputSource, str, bytes, pathlib.PurePath]
] = None,
publicID: Optional[str] = None,  # noqa: N803
format: Optional[str] = None,
location: Optional[str] = None,
file: Optional[Union[BinaryIO, TextIO]] = None,
data: Optional[Union[str, bytes]] = None,
**args: Any,
) -> Graph:
"""
Parse source adding the resulting triples to its own context (sub graph
of this graph).

See :meth:`rdflib.graph.Graph.parse` for documentation on arguments.

If the source is in a format that does not support named graphs it's triples
will be added to the default graph (i.e. `Dataset.default_context`).

:Returns:

The graph into which the source was parsed. In the case of n3 it returns
the root context.

.. caution::

This method can access directly or indirectly requested network or
file resources, for example, when parsing JSON-LD documents with
``@context`` directives that point to a network location.

When processing untrusted or potentially malicious documents,
measures should be taken to restrict network and file access.

For information on available security measures, see the RDFLib
:doc:`Security Considerations </security_considerations>`
documentation.

*Changed in 7.0*: The ``publicID`` argument is no longer used as the
identifier (i.e. name) of the default graph as was the case before
version 7.0. In the case of sources that do not support named graphs,
the ``publicID`` parameter will also not be used as the name for the
graph that the data is loaded into, and instead the triples from sources
that do not support named graphs will be loaded into the default graph
(i.e. `ConjunctionGraph.default_context`).
"""

source = create_input_source(
source=source,
publicID=publicID,
location=location,
file=file,
data=data,
format=format,
)

# NOTE on type hint: `xml.sax.xmlreader.InputSource.getPublicId` has no
# type annotations but given that systemId should be a string, and
# given that there is no specific mention of type for publicId, it
# seems reasonable to assume it should also be a string. Furthermore,
# create_input_source will ensure that publicId is not None, though it
# would be good if this guarantee was made more explicit i.e. by type
# hint on InputSource (TODO/FIXME).

context = self.default_context
context.parse(source, publicID=publicID, format=format, **args)
# TODO: FIXME: This should not return context, but self.
return context

[docs]    def __reduce__(self) -> Tuple[Type[Graph], Tuple[Store, _ContextIdentifierType]]:
return ConjunctiveGraph, (self.store, self.identifier)

DATASET_DEFAULT_GRAPH_ID = URIRef("urn:x-rdflib:default")

[docs]class Dataset(ConjunctiveGraph):
"""
RDF 1.1 Dataset. Small extension to the Conjunctive Graph:
- the primary term is graphs in the datasets and not contexts with quads,
so there is a separate method to set/retrieve a graph in a dataset and
operate with graphs
- graphs cannot be identified with blank nodes

Examples of usage:

>>> # Create a new Dataset
>>> ds = Dataset()
>>> # simple triples goes to default graph
...    URIRef("http://www.example.org/b"),
...    Literal("foo")))  # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Dataset'>)>
>>>
>>> # Create a graph in the dataset, if the graph name has already been
>>> # used, the corresponding graph will be returned
>>> # (ie, the Dataset keeps track of the constituent graphs)
>>> g = ds.graph(URIRef("http://www.example.com/gr"))
>>>
>>> # add triples to the new graph as usual
...     (URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
...     URIRef("http://example.org/y"),
...     Literal("bar")) ) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Graph'>)>
>>> # alternatively: add a quad to the dataset -> goes to the graph
...     (URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
...     URIRef("http://example.org/z"),
...     Literal("foo-bar"),g) ) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<Graph identifier=... (<class 'rdflib.graph.Dataset'>)>
>>>
>>> # querying triples return them all regardless of the graph
>>> for t in ds.triples((None,None,None)):  # doctest: +SKIP
...     print(t)  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/a"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://www.example.org/b"),
rdflib.term.Literal("foo"))
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/z"),
rdflib.term.Literal("foo-bar"))
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/y"),
rdflib.term.Literal("bar"))
>>>
>>> # querying quads() return quads; the fourth argument can be unrestricted
>>> # (None) or restricted to a graph
>>> for q in ds.quads((None, None, None, None)):  # doctest: +SKIP
...     print(q)  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/a"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://www.example.org/b"),
rdflib.term.Literal("foo"),
None)
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/y"),
rdflib.term.Literal("bar"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://www.example.com/gr"))
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/z"),
rdflib.term.Literal("foo-bar"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://www.example.com/gr"))
>>>
>>> # unrestricted looping is equivalent to iterating over the entire Dataset
>>> for q in ds:  # doctest: +SKIP
...     print(q)  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/a"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://www.example.org/b"),
rdflib.term.Literal("foo"),
None)
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/y"),
rdflib.term.Literal("bar"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://www.example.com/gr"))
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/z"),
rdflib.term.Literal("foo-bar"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://www.example.com/gr"))
>>>
>>> # resticting iteration to a graph:
>>> for q in ds.quads((None, None, None, g)):  # doctest: +SKIP
...     print(q)  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/y"),
rdflib.term.Literal("bar"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://www.example.com/gr"))
(rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/x"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://example.org/z"),
rdflib.term.Literal("foo-bar"),
rdflib.term.URIRef("http://www.example.com/gr"))
>>> # Note that in the call above -
>>> # would have been accepted, too
>>>
>>> # graph names in the dataset can be queried:
>>> for c in ds.graphs():  # doctest: +SKIP
...     print(c)  # doctest:
DEFAULT
http://www.example.com/gr
>>> # A graph can be created without specifying a name; a skolemized genid
>>> # is created on the fly
>>> h = ds.graph()
>>> for c in ds.graphs():  # doctest: +SKIP
...     print(c)  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE +ELLIPSIS
DEFAULT
https://rdflib.github.io/.well-known/genid/rdflib/N...
http://www.example.com/gr
>>> # Note that the Dataset.graphs() call returns names of empty graphs,
>>> # too. This can be restricted:
>>> for c in ds.graphs(empty=False):  # doctest: +SKIP
...     print(c)  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
DEFAULT
http://www.example.com/gr
>>>
>>> # a graph can also be removed from a dataset via ds.remove_graph(g)

"""

[docs]    def __init__(
self,
store: Union[Store, str] = "default",
default_union: bool = False,
default_graph_base: Optional[str] = None,
):
super(Dataset, self).__init__(store=store, identifier=None)

if not self.store.graph_aware:
raise Exception("DataSet must be backed by a graph-aware store!")
self.default_context = Graph(
store=self.store,
identifier=DATASET_DEFAULT_GRAPH_ID,
base=default_graph_base,
)

self.default_union = default_union

[docs]    def __str__(self) -> str:
pattern = (
"[a rdflib:Dataset;rdflib:storage " "[a rdflib:Store;rdfs:label '%s']]"
)
return pattern % self.store.__class__.__name__

# type error: Return type "Tuple[Type[Dataset], Tuple[Store, bool]]" of "__reduce__" incompatible with return type "Tuple[Type[Graph], Tuple[Store, IdentifiedNode]]" in supertype "ConjunctiveGraph"
# type error: Return type "Tuple[Type[Dataset], Tuple[Store, bool]]" of "__reduce__" incompatible with return type "Tuple[Type[Graph], Tuple[Store, IdentifiedNode]]" in supertype "Graph"
[docs]    def __reduce__(self) -> Tuple[Type[Dataset], Tuple[Store, bool]]:  # type: ignore[override]
return (type(self), (self.store, self.default_union))

[docs]    def __getstate__(self) -> Tuple[Store, _ContextIdentifierType, _ContextType, bool]:
return self.store, self.identifier, self.default_context, self.default_union

[docs]    def __setstate__(
self, state: Tuple[Store, _ContextIdentifierType, _ContextType, bool]
) -> None:
# type error: Property "store" defined in "Graph" is read-only
# type error: Property "identifier" defined in "Graph" is read-only
self.store, self.identifier, self.default_context, self.default_union = state  # type: ignore[misc]

[docs]    def graph(
self,
identifier: Optional[Union[_ContextIdentifierType, _ContextType, str]] = None,
base: Optional[str] = None,
) -> Graph:
if identifier is None:
from rdflib.term import _SKOLEM_DEFAULT_AUTHORITY, rdflib_skolem_genid

self.bind(
"genid",
_SKOLEM_DEFAULT_AUTHORITY + rdflib_skolem_genid,
override=False,
)
identifier = BNode().skolemize()

g = self._graph(identifier)
g.base = base

return g

[docs]    def parse(
self,
source: Optional[
Union[IO[bytes], TextIO, InputSource, str, bytes, pathlib.PurePath]
] = None,
publicID: Optional[str] = None,  # noqa: N803
format: Optional[str] = None,
location: Optional[str] = None,
file: Optional[Union[BinaryIO, TextIO]] = None,
data: Optional[Union[str, bytes]] = None,
**args: Any,
) -> Graph:
"""
Parse an RDF source adding the resulting triples to the Graph.

See :meth:`rdflib.graph.Graph.parse` for documentation on arguments.

The source is specified using one of source, location, file or data.

If the source is in a format that does not support named graphs it's triples
will be added to the default graph (i.e. `Dataset.default_context`).

.. caution::

This method can access directly or indirectly requested network or
file resources, for example, when parsing JSON-LD documents with
``@context`` directives that point to a network location.

When processing untrusted or potentially malicious documents,
measures should be taken to restrict network and file access.

For information on available security measures, see the RDFLib
:doc:`Security Considerations </security_considerations>`
documentation.

*Changed in 7.0*: The ``publicID`` argument is no longer used as the
identifier (i.e. name) of the default graph as was the case before
version 7.0. In the case of sources that do not support named graphs,
the ``publicID`` parameter will also not be used as the name for the
graph that the data is loaded into, and instead the triples from sources
that do not support named graphs will be loaded into the default graph
(i.e. `ConjunctionGraph.default_context`).
"""

c = ConjunctiveGraph.parse(
self, source, publicID, format, location, file, data, **args
)
self.graph(c)
return c

self, g: Optional[Union[_ContextIdentifierType, _ContextType, str]]
) -> Graph:
"""alias of graph for consistency"""
return self.graph(g)

[docs]    def remove_graph(
self: _DatasetT, g: Optional[Union[_ContextIdentifierType, _ContextType, str]]
) -> _DatasetT:
if not isinstance(g, Graph):
g = self.get_context(g)

self.store.remove_graph(g)
if g is None or g == self.default_context:
# default graph cannot be removed
# only triples deleted, so add it back in
return self

[docs]    def contexts(
self, triple: Optional[_TripleType] = None
) -> Generator[_ContextType, None, None]:
default = False
for c in super(Dataset, self).contexts(triple):
default |= c.identifier == DATASET_DEFAULT_GRAPH_ID
yield c
if not default:
yield self.graph(DATASET_DEFAULT_GRAPH_ID)

graphs = contexts

# type error: Return type "Generator[Tuple[Node, Node, Node, Optional[Node]], None, None]" of "quads" incompatible with return type "Generator[Tuple[Node, Node, Node, Optional[Graph]], None, None]" in supertype "ConjunctiveGraph"
[docs]    def quads(  # type: ignore[override]
# type error: Item "None" of "Optional[Graph]" has no attribute "identifier"
if c.identifier == self.default_context:  # type: ignore[union-attr]
yield s, p, o, None
else:
# type error: Item "None" of "Optional[Graph]" has no attribute "identifier"  [union-attr]
yield s, p, o, c.identifier  # type: ignore[union-attr]

# type error: Return type "Generator[Tuple[Node, URIRef, Node, Optional[IdentifiedNode]], None, None]" of "__iter__" incompatible with return type "Generator[Tuple[IdentifiedNode, IdentifiedNode, Union[IdentifiedNode, Literal]], None, None]" in supertype "Graph"
[docs]    def __iter__(  # type: ignore[override]
self,
"""Iterates over all quads in the store"""

[docs]class QuotedGraph(Graph):
"""
Quoted Graphs are intended to implement Notation 3 formulae. They are
associated with a required identifier that the N3 parser *must* provide
in order to maintain consistent formulae identification for scenarios
such as implication and other such processing.
"""

[docs]    def __init__(
self,
store: Union[Store, str],
identifier: Optional[Union[_ContextIdentifierType, str]],
):
super(QuotedGraph, self).__init__(store, identifier)

[docs]    def add(self: _GraphT, triple: _TripleType) -> _GraphT:
"""Add a triple with self as context"""
s, p, o = triple
assert isinstance(s, Node), "Subject %s must be an rdflib term" % (s,)
assert isinstance(p, Node), "Predicate %s must be an rdflib term" % (p,)
assert isinstance(o, Node), "Object %s must be an rdflib term" % (o,)

return self

"""Add a sequence of triple with context"""

(s, p, o, c)
for s, p, o, c in quads
if isinstance(c, QuotedGraph)
and c.identifier is self.identifier
and _assertnode(s, p, o)
)
return self

[docs]    def n3(self, namespace_manager: Optional[NamespaceManager] = None) -> str:
"""Return an n3 identifier for the Graph"""
return "{%s}" % self.identifier.n3(namespace_manager=namespace_manager)

[docs]    def __str__(self) -> str:
identifier = self.identifier.n3()
label = self.store.__class__.__name__
pattern = (
"{this rdflib.identifier %s;rdflib:storage "
"[a rdflib:Store;rdfs:label '%s']}"
)
return pattern % (identifier, label)

[docs]    def __reduce__(self) -> Tuple[Type[Graph], Tuple[Store, _ContextIdentifierType]]:
return QuotedGraph, (self.store, self.identifier)

# Make sure QuotedGraph is ordered correctly
# wrt to other Terms.
# this must be done here, as the QuotedGraph cannot be
# circularily imported in term.py
rdflib.term._ORDERING[QuotedGraph] = 11

[docs]class Seq:
"""Wrapper around an RDF Seq resource

It implements a container type in Python with the order of the items
returned corresponding to the Seq content. It is based on the natural
ordering of the predicate names _1, _2, _3, etc, which is the
'implementation' of a sequence in RDF terms.
"""

[docs]    def __init__(self, graph: Graph, subject: _SubjectType):
"""Parameters:

- graph:
the graph containing the Seq

- subject:
the subject of a Seq. Note that the init does not
check whether this is a Seq, this is done in whoever
creates this instance!
"""

self._list: List[Tuple[int, _ObjectType]]
_list = self._list = list()
LI_INDEX = URIRef(str(RDF) + "_")  # noqa: N806
for p, o in graph.predicate_objects(subject):
# type error: "Node" has no attribute "startswith"
if p.startswith(LI_INDEX):  # type: ignore[attr-defined] # != RDF.Seq:
# type error: "Node" has no attribute "replace"
i = int(p.replace(LI_INDEX, ""))  # type: ignore[attr-defined]
_list.append((i, o))

# here is the trick: the predicates are _1, _2, _3, etc. Ie,
# by sorting the keys (by integer) we have what we want!
_list.sort()

[docs]    def toPython(self) -> Seq:  # noqa: N802
return self

[docs]    def __iter__(self) -> Generator[_ObjectType, None, None]:
"""Generator over the items in the Seq"""
for _, item in self._list:
yield item

[docs]    def __len__(self) -> int:
"""Length of the Seq"""
return len(self._list)

[docs]    def __getitem__(self, index) -> _ObjectType:
"""Item given by index from the Seq"""
index, item = self._list.__getitem__(index)
return item

[docs]class ModificationException(Exception):  # noqa: N818
[docs]    def __init__(self) -> None:
pass

[docs]    def __str__(self) -> str:
return (
"Modifications and transactional operations not allowed on "
)

[docs]class UnSupportedAggregateOperation(Exception):  # noqa: N818
[docs]    def __init__(self) -> None:
pass

[docs]    def __str__(self) -> str:
return "This operation is not supported by ReadOnlyGraphAggregate " "instances"

"""Utility class for treating a set of graphs as a single graph

Only read operations are supported (hence the name). Essentially a
ConjunctiveGraph over an explicit subset of the entire store.
"""

[docs]    def __init__(self, graphs: List[Graph], store: Union[str, Store] = "default"):
if store is not None:
Graph.__init__(self, store)
self.__namespace_manager = None

assert (
isinstance(graphs, list)
and graphs
and [g for g in graphs if isinstance(g, Graph)]
), "graphs argument must be a list of Graphs!!"
self.graphs = graphs

[docs]    def __repr__(self) -> str:
return "<ReadOnlyGraphAggregate: %s graphs>" % len(self.graphs)

[docs]    def destroy(self, configuration: str) -> NoReturn:
raise ModificationException()

# Transactional interfaces (optional)
[docs]    def commit(self) -> NoReturn:
raise ModificationException()

[docs]    def rollback(self) -> NoReturn:
raise ModificationException()

[docs]    def open(self, configuration: str, create: bool = False) -> None:
# TODO: is there a use case for this method?
for graph in self.graphs:
# type error: Too many arguments for "open" of "Graph"
# type error: Argument 1 to "open" of "Graph" has incompatible type "ReadOnlyGraphAggregate"; expected "str"  [arg-type]
# type error: Argument 2 to "open" of "Graph" has incompatible type "str"; expected "bool"  [arg-type]
graph.open(self, configuration, create)  # type: ignore[call-arg, arg-type]

# type error: Signature of "close" incompatible with supertype "Graph"
[docs]    def close(self) -> None:  # type: ignore[override]
for graph in self.graphs:
graph.close()

raise ModificationException()

raise ModificationException()

# type error: Argument 1 of "remove" is incompatible with supertype "Graph"; supertype defines the argument type as "Tuple[Optional[Node], Optional[Node], Optional[Node]]"
[docs]    def remove(self, triple: _TripleOrOptionalQuadType) -> NoReturn:  # type: ignore[override]
raise ModificationException()

# type error: Signature of "triples" incompatible with supertype "ConjunctiveGraph"
def triples(
self,
triple: _TriplePatternType,
) -> Generator[_TripleType, None, None]: ...

def triples(
self,
triple: _TriplePathPatternType,
) -> Generator[_TriplePathType, None, None]: ...

def triples(
self,
triple: _TripleSelectorType,
) -> Generator[_TripleOrTriplePathType, None, None]: ...

[docs]    def triples(
self,
triple: _TripleSelectorType,
) -> Generator[_TripleOrTriplePathType, None, None]:
s, p, o = triple
for graph in self.graphs:
if isinstance(p, Path):
for s, o in p.eval(self, s, o):
yield s, p, o
else:
for s1, p1, o1 in graph.triples((s, p, o)):
yield s1, p1, o1

context = None
# type error: Tuple index out of range
context = triple_or_quad[3]  # type: ignore [misc]
for graph in self.graphs:
if context is None or graph.identifier == context.identifier:
return True
return False

# type error: Signature of "quads" incompatible with supertype "ConjunctiveGraph"
[docs]    def quads(  # type: ignore[override]
) -> Generator[
Tuple[_SubjectType, Union[Path, _PredicateType], _ObjectType, _ContextType],
None,
None,
]:
"""Iterate over all the quads in the entire aggregate graph"""
c = None
# type error: Need more than 3 values to unpack (4 expected)
s, p, o, c = triple_or_quad  # type: ignore[misc]
else:
# type error: Too many values to unpack (3 expected, 4 provided)
s, p, o = triple_or_quad  # type: ignore[misc]

if c is not None:
for graph in [g for g in self.graphs if g == c]:
for s1, p1, o1 in graph.triples((s, p, o)):
yield s1, p1, o1, graph
else:
for graph in self.graphs:
for s1, p1, o1 in graph.triples((s, p, o)):
yield s1, p1, o1, graph

[docs]    def __len__(self) -> int:
return sum(len(g) for g in self.graphs)

[docs]    def __hash__(self) -> NoReturn:
raise UnSupportedAggregateOperation()

[docs]    def __cmp__(self, other) -> int:
if other is None:
return -1
elif isinstance(other, Graph):
return -1
return (self.graphs > other.graphs) - (self.graphs < other.graphs)
else:
return -1

[docs]    def __iadd__(self: _GraphT, other: Iterable[_TripleType]) -> NoReturn:
raise ModificationException()

[docs]    def __isub__(self: _GraphT, other: Iterable[_TripleType]) -> NoReturn:
raise ModificationException()

# Conv. methods

[docs]    def triples_choices(
self,
triple: Union[
Tuple[List[_SubjectType], _PredicateType, _ObjectType],
Tuple[_SubjectType, List[_PredicateType], _ObjectType],
Tuple[_SubjectType, _PredicateType, List[_ObjectType]],
],
context: Optional[_ContextType] = None,
) -> Generator[_TripleType, None, None]:
subject, predicate, object_ = triple
for graph in self.graphs:
# type error: Argument 1 to "triples_choices" of "Graph" has incompatible type "Tuple[Union[List[Node], Node], Union[Node, List[Node]], Union[Node, List[Node]]]"; expected "Union[Tuple[List[Node], Node, Node], Tuple[Node, List[Node], Node], Tuple[Node, Node, List[Node]]]"
# type error note: unpacking discards type info
choices = graph.triples_choices((subject, predicate, object_))  # type: ignore[arg-type]
for s, p, o in choices:
yield s, p, o

[docs]    def qname(self, uri: str) -> str:
if hasattr(self, "namespace_manager") and self.namespace_manager:
return self.namespace_manager.qname(uri)
raise UnSupportedAggregateOperation()

[docs]    def compute_qname(self, uri: str, generate: bool = True) -> Tuple[str, URIRef, str]:
if hasattr(self, "namespace_manager") and self.namespace_manager:
return self.namespace_manager.compute_qname(uri, generate)
raise UnSupportedAggregateOperation()

# type error: Signature of "bind" incompatible with supertype "Graph"
[docs]    def bind(  # type: ignore[override]
self, prefix: Optional[str], namespace: Any, override: bool = True  # noqa: F811
) -> NoReturn:
raise UnSupportedAggregateOperation()

[docs]    def namespaces(self) -> Generator[Tuple[str, URIRef], None, None]:
if hasattr(self, "namespace_manager"):
for prefix, namespace in self.namespace_manager.namespaces():
yield prefix, namespace
else:
for graph in self.graphs:
for prefix, namespace in graph.namespaces():
yield prefix, namespace

[docs]    def absolutize(self, uri: str, defrag: int = 1) -> NoReturn:
raise UnSupportedAggregateOperation()

# type error: Signature of "parse" incompatible with supertype "ConjunctiveGraph"
[docs]    def parse(  # type: ignore[override]
self,
source: Optional[
Union[IO[bytes], TextIO, InputSource, str, bytes, pathlib.PurePath]
],
publicID: Optional[str] = None,  # noqa: N803
format: Optional[str] = None,
**args: Any,
) -> NoReturn:
raise ModificationException()

[docs]    def n3(self, namespace_manager: Optional[NamespaceManager] = None) -> NoReturn:
raise UnSupportedAggregateOperation()

[docs]    def __reduce__(self) -> NoReturn:
raise UnSupportedAggregateOperation()

def _assertnode(*terms: Node) -> te.Literal[True]: ...

def _assertnode(*terms: Any) -> bool: ...

def _assertnode(*terms: Any) -> bool:
for t in terms:
assert isinstance(t, Node), "Term %s must be an rdflib term" % (t,)
return True

"""
Wrapper around graph that turns batches of calls to Graph's add

:Parameters:

- graph: The graph to wrap
- batch_size: The maximum number of triples to buffer before passing to
- batch_addn: If True, then even calls to `addN` will be batched according to
batch_size

graph: The wrapped graph
count: The number of triples buffered since initialization or the last call to reset
batch: The current buffer of triples

"""

[docs]    def __init__(self, graph: Graph, batch_size: int = 1000, batch_addn: bool = False):
if not batch_size or batch_size < 2:
raise ValueError("batch_size must be a positive number")
self.graph = graph
self.__graph_tuple = (graph,)
self.__batch_size = batch_size
self.reset()

"""
Manually clear the buffered triples and reset the count to zero
"""
self.count = 0
return self

self,
_TripleType,
],
"""
Add a triple to the buffer

:param triple: The triple to add
"""
if len(self.batch) >= self.__batch_size:
self.batch = []
self.count += 1
# type error: Argument 1 to "append" of "list" has incompatible type "Tuple[Node, ...]"; expected "Tuple[Node, Node, Node, Graph]"
self.batch.append(triple_or_quad + self.__graph_tuple)  # type: ignore[arg-type]
else:
# type error: Argument 1 to "append" of "list" has incompatible type "Union[Tuple[Node, Node, Node], Tuple[Node, Node, Node, Graph]]"; expected "Tuple[Node, Node, Node, Graph]"
return self