2023-08-02 RELEASE 7.0.0

This is a major release with relatively slight breaking changes, new features and bug fixes.

The most notable breaking change relates to how RDFLib handles the publicID parameter of the Graph.parse and Dataset.parse methods. Most users should not be affected by this change.

Instructions on adapting existing code to the breaking changes can be found in the upgrade guide from Version 6 to Version 7 which should be available here.

It is likely that the next couple of RDFLib releases will all be major versions, mostly because there are some more shortcomings of RDFLib’s public interface that should be addressed.

If you use RDFLib, please consider keeping an eye on discussions, issues and pull-requests labelled with “feedback wanted”.

A big thanks to everyone who contributed to this release.

BREAKING CHANGE: don’t use publicID as the name for the default graph. (#2406)

Commit 4b96e9d, closes #2406.

When parsing data into a ConjunctiveGraph or Dataset, the triples in the default graphs in the sources were loaded into a graph named publicID.

This behaviour has been changed, and now the triples from the default graph in source RDF documents will be loaded into ConjunctiveGraph.default_context or Dataset.default_context.

The publicID parameter to ConjunctiveGraph.parse and Dataset.parse constructors will now only be used as the base URI for relative URI resolution.

  • Fixes

  • Fixes

  • Fixes

  • Fixes

BREAKING CHANGE: drop support for python 3.7 (#2436)

Commit 1e5f56b, closes #2436.

Python 3.7 will be end-of-life on the 27th of June 2023 and the next release of RDFLib will be a new major version.

This changes the minimum supported version of Python to 3.8.1 as some of the dependencies we use are not too fond of python 3.8.0. This change also removes all accommodations for older python versions.

feat: add curie method to NamespaceManager (#2365)

Commit f200722, closes #2365.

Added a curie method to NamespaceManager, which can be used to generate a CURIE from a URI.

Other changes:


feat: add optional target_graph argument to Graph.cbd and use it for DESCRIBE queries (#2322)

Commit 81d13d4, closes #2322.

Add optional keyword only target_graph argument to rdflib.graph.Graph.cbd and use this new argument in evalDescribeQuery.

This makes it possible to compute a concise bounded description without creating a new graph to hold the result, and also without potentially having to copy it to another final graph.

feat: Don’t generate prefixes for unknown URIs (#2467)

Commit bd797ac.

When serializing RDF graphs, URIs with unknown prefixes were assigned a namespace like ns1:. While the result would be smaller files, it does result in output that is not as readable.

This change removes this automatic assignment of namespace prefixes.

This is somewhat of an aesthetic choice, eventually we should have more flexibility in this regard so that users can exercise more control over how URIs in unknown namespaces are handled.

With this change, users can still manually create namespace prefixes for URIs in unknown namespaces, but before it there was no way to avoid the undesired behaviour, so this seems like the better default.

feat: Longturtle improvements (#2500)

Commit 5ee8bd7, closes #2500.

Improved the output of the longturtle serializer.

fix: SPARQL count with optionals (#2448)

Commit 46ff6cf, closes #2448.

Change SPARQL count aggregate to ignore optional that are unbound instead of raising an exception when they are encountered.

fix: GROUP_CONCAT handling of empty separator (issue) (#2474)

Commit e94c252, closes #2474.

GROUP_CONCAT was handling an empty separator (i.e. "") incorrectly, it would handle it as if the separator were not set, so essentially it was treated as a single space (i.e. " ").

This change fixes it so that an empty separator with GROUP_CONCAT results in a value with nothing between concatenated values.


fix: add NORMALIZE_LITERALS to rdflib.__all__ (#2489)

Commit 6981c28, closes #2489.

This gets Sphinx to generate documentation for it, and also clearly indicates that it can be used from outside the module.

fix: bugs with rdflib.extras.infixowl (#2390)

Commit cd0b442, closes #2390.

Fix the following issues in rdflib.extras.infixowl:

  • getting and setting of max cardinality only considered identifiers and not other RDF terms.

  • The return value of manchesterSyntax was wrong for some cases.

  • The way that BooleanClass was generating its string representation (i.e. BooleanClass.__repr__) was wrong for some cases.

Other changes:

  • Added an example for using infixowl to create an ontology.

  • Updated infixowl tests.

  • Updated infixowl documentation.

This code is based on code from:

fix: correct imports and __all__ (#2340)

Commit 7df77cd, closes #2340.

Disable implicit_reexport and eliminate all errors reported by mypy after this.

This helps ensure that import statements import from the right module and that the __all__ variable is correct.

fix: dbpedia URL to use https instead of http (#2444)

Commit ef25896, closes #2444.

The URL for the service keyword had the http address for the dbpedia endpoint, which no longer works. Changing it to https as that works.

fix: eliminate bare except: (#2350)

Commit 4ea1436, closes #2350.

Replace bare except: with except Exception, there are some cases where it can be narrowed further, but this is already an improvement over the current situation.

This is somewhat pursuant to eliminating flakeheaven, as it no longer supports the latest version of flake8 [ref]. But it also is just the right thing to do as bare exceptions can cause problems.

fix: eliminate file intermediary in translate algebra (#2267)

Commit ae6b859, closes #2267.

Previously, rdflib.plugins.sparql.algebra.translateAlgebra() maintained state via a file, with a fixed filename query.txt. With this change, use of that file is eliminated; state is now maintained in memory so that multiple concurrent translateAlgebra() calls, for example, should no longer interfere with each other.

The change is accomplished with no change to the client interface. Basically, the actual functionality has been moved into a class, which is instantiated and used as needed (once per call to algrebra.translateAlgebra()).

fix: eliminate some mutable default arguments in SPARQL code (#2301)

Commit 89982f8, closes #2301.

This change eliminates some situations where a mutable object (i.e., a dictionary) was used as the default value for functions in the rdflib.plugins.sparql.processor module and related code. It replaces these situations with typing.Optinal that defaults to None, and is then handled within the function. Luckily, some of the code that the SPARQL Processor relied on already had this style, meaning not a lot of changes had to be made.

This change also makes a small update to the logic in the SPARQL Processor’s query function to simplify the if/else statement. This better mirrors the implementation in the UpdateProcessor.

fix: formatting of SequencePath and AlternativePath (#2504)

Commit 9c73581, closes #2504.

These path types were formatted without parentheses even if they contained multiple elements, resulting in string representations that did not accurately represent the path.

This change fixes the formatting so that the string representations are enclosed in parentheses when necessary.

fix: handling of rdf:HTML literals (#2490)

Commit 588286b, closes #2490.

Previously, without html5lib installed, literals withrdf:HTML datatypes were treated as ill-typed, even if they were not ill-typed.

With this change, if html5lib is not installed, literals with the rdf:HTML datatype will not be treated as ill-typed, and will have Null as their ill_typed attribute value, which means that it is unknown whether they are ill-typed or not.

This change also fixes the mapping from rdf:HTML literal values to lexical forms.

Other changes:

  • Add tests for rdflib.NORMALIZE_LITERALS to ensure it behaves correctly.

Related issues:

fix: HTTP 308 Permanent Redirect status code handling (#2389)

Commit e0b3152, closes #2389 /

Change the handling of HTTP status code 308 to behave more like urllib.request.HTTPRedirectHandler, most critically, the new 308 handling will create a new urllib.request.Request object with the new URL, which will prevent state from being carried over from the original request.

One case where this is important is when the domain name changes, for example, when the original URL is and the redirect URL is With the previous behaviour, the redirect would contain a Host header with the value instead of because the Host header is placed in Request.unredirected_hdrs and takes precedence over the Host header in Request.headers.

Other changes:

  • Only handle HTTP status code 308 on Python versions before 3.11 as Python 3.11

    will handle 308 by default [ref].

  • Move code which uses and out of test_guess_format_for_parse into a separate parameterized test, which instead uses the embedded http server.

    This allows the test to fully control the Content-Type header in the response instead of relying on the value that the server is sending.

    This is needed because the server is sending Content-Type: text/plain for the adms.ttl file, which is not a valid RDF format, and the test is expecting Content-Type: text/turtle.


fix: lexical-to-value mapping of rdf:HTML literals (#2483)

Commit 53aaf02, closes #2483.

Use strict mode when parsing rdf:HTML literals. This ensures that when lexical-to-value mapping (i.e. parsing) of a literal with rdf:HTML data type occurs, a value will only be assigned if the lexical form is a valid HTML5 fragment. Otherwise, i.e. for invalid fragments, no value will be associated with the literal [ref] and the literal will be ill-typed.

fix: TriG handling of GRAPH keyword without a graph ID (#2469)

Commit 8c9608b, closes #2469 /

The RDF 1.1 TriG grammar only allows the GRAPH keyword if it is followed by a graph identifier [ref].

This change enforces this rule so that the test passes.

fix: TriG parser error handling for nested graphs (#2468)

Commit afea615, closes #2468 /

Raise an error when nested graphs occur in TriG.

With this change, the test passes.

fix: typing errors from dmypy (#2451)

Commit 10f9ebe, closes #2451.

Fix various typing errors that are reported when running with dmypy, the mypy daemon.

Also add a task for running dmypy to the Taskfile that can be selected as the default mypy variant by setting the MYPY_VARIANT environment variable to dmypy.

fix: widen Graph.__contains__ type-hints to accept Path values (#2323)

Commit 1c45ec4, closes #2323.

Change the type-hints for Graph.__contains__ to also accept Path values as the parameter is passed to the Graph.triples function, which accepts Path values.

docs: Add CITATION.cff file (#2502)

Commit ad5c0e1, closes #2502.

The CITATION.cff file provides release metadata which is used by Zenodo and other software and systems.

This file’s content is best-effort, and pull requests with improvements are welcome and will affect future releases.

docs: add guidelines for breaking changes (#2402)

Commit cad367e, closes #2402.

Add guidelines on how breaking changes should be approached.

The guidelines take a very pragmatic approach with known downsides, but this seems like the best compromise given the current situation.

For prior discussion on this point see:




docs: fix comment that doesn’t describe behavior (#2443)

Commit 4e42d10, closes #2443.

Comment refers to a person that knows bob and the code would return a name, but this would only work if the triple person foaf:name bob . is part of the dataset

As this is a very uncommon way to model a foaf:knows the code was adjusted to match the description.

docs: recommend making an issue before making an enhancement (#2391)

Commit 63b082c, closes #2391.

Suggest that contributors first make an issue to get in principle agreement for pull requests before making the pull request.

Enhancements can be controversial, and we may reject the enhancement sometimes, even if the code is good, as it may just not be deemed important enough to increase the maintenance burden of RDFLib.

Other changes:

  • Updated the checklist in the pull request template to be more accurate to current practice.

  • Improved grammar and writing in the pull request template, contribution guide and developers guide.

docs: remove unicode string form in rdflib/ (#2384)

Commit ddcc4eb, closes #2384.

The use of Unicode literals is an artefact of Python 2 and is incorrect in Python 3.

Doctests for docstrings using Unicode literals only pass because ALLOW_UNICODE is set, but this option should be disabled as RDFLib does not support Python 2 any more.

This partially resolves

2023-03-26 RELEASE 6.3.2

fix: ROUND, ENCODE_FOR_URI and SECONDS SPARQL functions (#2314)

Commit af17916, closes #2314.

ROUND was not correctly rounding negative numbers towards positive infinity, ENCODE_FOR_URI incorrectly treated / as safe, and SECONDS did not include fractional seconds.

This change corrects these issues.

fix: add __hash__ and __eq__ back to rdflib.paths.Path (#2292)

Commit fe1a8f8, closes #2292.

These methods were removed when @total_ordering was added, but @total_ordering does not add them, so removing them essentially removes functionality.

This change adds the methods back and adds tests to ensure they work correctly.

All path related tests are also moved into one file.

fix: Add to_dict method to the JSON-LD Context class. (#2310)

Commit d7883eb, closes #2310.

Context.to_dict is used in JSON-LD serialization, but it was not implemented. This change adds the method.

fix: add the wgs namespace binding back (#2294)

Commit adf8eb2, closes #2294. inadvertently removed the wgs prefix. This change adds it back.

fix: change the prefix for back to schema (#2312)

Commit 3faa01b, closes #2312.

The default prefix for registered with rdflib.namespace.NamespaceManager was inadvertently changed to sdo in 6.2.0, this however constitutes a breaking change, as code that was using the schema prefix would no longer have the same behaviour. This change changes the prefix back to schema.

fix: include docs and examples in the sdist tarball (#2289)

Commit 394fb50, closes #2289.

The sdists generated by setuptools included the docs and examples directories, and they are needed for building docs and running tests using the sdist.

This change includes these directories in the sdist tarball.

A test:sdist task is also added to Taskfile.yml which uses the sdists to run pytest and build docs.

fix: IRI to URI conversion (#2304)

Commit dfa4054, closes #2304.

The URI to IRI conversion was percentage-quoting characters that should not have been quoted, like equals in the query string. It was also not quoting things that should have been quoted, like the username and password components of a URI.

This change improves the conversion by only quoting characters that are not allowed in specific parts of the URI and quoting previously unquoted components. The safe characters for each segment are taken from RFC3986.

The new behavior is heavily inspired by

werkzeug.urls.iri_to_uri though there are some differences.

fix: JSON-LD context construction from a dict (#2306)

Commit 832e693, closes #2306.

A variable was only being initialized for string-valued inputs, but if a dict input was passed the variable would still be accessed, resulting in a UnboundLocalError.

This change initializes the variable always, instead of only when string-valued input is used to construct a JSON-LD context.

fix: reference to global inside get_target_namespace_elements (#2311)

Commit 4da67f9, closes #2311.

get_target_namespace_elements references the args global, which is not defined if the function is called from outside the module. This commit fixes that instead referencing the argument passed to the function.

fix: restore the 6.1.1 default bound namespaces (#2313)

Commit 57bb428, closes #2313.

The namespaces bound by default by rdflib.graph.Graph and rdflib.namespace.NamespaceManager was reduced in version 6.2.0 of RDFLib, however, this also would cause code that worked with 6.1.1 to break, so this constituted a breaking change. This change restores the previous behaviour, binding the same namespaces as was bound in 6.1.1.

To bind a reduced set of namespaces, the bind_namespaces parameter of rdflib.graph.Graph or rdflib.namespace.NamespaceManager can be used.

test: add webtest marker to tests that use the internet (#2295)

Commit cfe6e37, closes #2295.

This is being done so that it is easier for downstream packagers to run the test suite without requiring internet access.

To run only tests that does not use the internet, run pytest -m "not webtest".

The validation workflow validates that test run without internet access by running the tests inside firejail --net=none.

chore: Update CONTRIBUTORS from commit history (#2305)

Commit 1ab4fc0, closes #2305.

This ensures contributors are credited. Also added .mailmap to fix early misattributed contributions.

docs: fix typo in NamespaceManager documentation (#2291)

Commit 7a05c15, closes #2291.

Changed cdterms to dcterms, see for more info.

2023-03-18 RELEASE 6.3.1

This is a patch release that includes a singular user facing fix, which is the inclusion of the test directory in the sdist release artifact.

The following sections describe the changes included in this version.

build: explicitly specify packages in pyproject.toml (#2280)

Commit 334787b, closes #2280.

The default behaviour makes it more of a hassle to republish RDFLib to a separate package, something which I plan to do for testing purposes and possibly other reasons.

More changes may follow in a similar vein.

build: include test in sdist (#2282)

Commit e3884b7, closes #2282.

A perhaps minor regression from earlier versions is that the sdist does not include the test folder, which makes it harder for downstreams to use a single source of truth to build and test a reliable package. This restores the test folder for sdists.

docs: don’t use kroki (#2284)

Commit bea782f, closes #2284.

The Kroki server is currently experiencing some issues which breaks our build, this change eliminates the use of Kroki in favour of directly using the generated SVG images which is checked into git alongside the PlantUML sources.

I also added a task to the Taskfile to re-generate the SVG images from the PlantUML sources by calling docker.

2023-03-16 RELEASE 6.3.0

This is a minor release that includes bug fixes and features.

Important Information

  • RDFLib will drop support for Python 3.7 when it becomes EOL on 2023-06-27, this will not be considered a breaking change, and RDFLib’s major version number will not be changed solely on the basis of Python 3.7 support being dropped.

User facing changes

This section lists changes that have a potential impact on users of RDFLib, changes with no user impact are not included in this section.

  • Add chunk serializer that facilitates the encoding of a graph into multiple N-Triples encoded chunks. PR #1968.

  • Fixes passing NamespaceManager in ConjunctiveGraph’s method get_context(). The get_context() method will now pass the NamespaceManager of ConjunctiveGraph to the namespace_manager attribute of the newly created context graph, instead of the ConjunctiveGraph object itself. This cleans up an old FIXME comment. PR #2073.

  • InfixOWL fixes and cleanup. Closed issue #2030. PR #2024, and PR #2033.

    • rdflib.extras.infixowl.Restriction.__init__ will now raise a ValueError if there is no restriction value instead of an AssertionError.

    • Fixed numerous issues with rdflib.extras.infixowl.Restriction.restrictionKind which was essentially not working at all.

    • Fixed how rdflib.extras.infixowl.Property.__repr__ uses rdflib.namespace.OWL.

    • Removed rdflib.extras.infixowl.Infix.__ror__ and rdflib.extras.infixowl.Infix.__or__ as they were broken.

    • Removed unused rdflib.extras.infixowl.termDeletionDecorator.

    • Added rdflib.extras.infixowl.MalformedClassError which will replace rdflib.extras.infixowl.MalformedClass (which is an exception) in the next major version.

    • Eliminated the use of mutable data structures in some argument defaults.

  • Fixed some cross-referencing issues in RDFLib documentation. Closed issue #1878. PR #2036.

  • Fixed import of xml.sax.handler in rdflib.plugins.parsers.trix so that it no longer tries to import it from xml.sax.saxutils. PR #2041.

  • Removed a pre python 3.5 regex related workaround in the REPLACE SPARQL function. PR #2042.

  • Fixed some issues with SPARQL XML result parsing that caused problems with lxml. Closed issue #2035, issue #1847. PR #2044.

    • Result parsing from TextIO streams now work correctly with lxml installed and with XML documents that are not utf-8 encoded.

    • Elements inside <results> that are not <result> are now ignored.

    • Elements inside <result> that are not <binding> are now ignored.

    • Also added type hints to rdflib.plugins.sparql.results.xmlresults.

  • Added type hints to the following modules:

  • Removed pre python 3.7 compatibility code. PR #2066.

    • Removed fallback in case the shutil module does not have the move function.

  • Improve file-URI and path handling in Graph.serialize and Result.serialize to address problems with windows path handling in Result.serialize and to make the behavior between Graph.serialize and Result.serialie more consistent. Closed issue #2067. PR #2065.

    • String values for the destination argument will now only be treated as file URIs if urllib.parse.urlparse returns their schema as file.

    • Simplified file writing to avoid a temporary file.

  • Narrow the type of context-identifiers/graph-names from rdflib.term.Node to rdflib.term.IdentifiedNode as no supported abstract syntax allows for other types of context-identifiers. PR #2069.

  • Always parse HexTuple files as utf-8. PR #2070.

  • Fixed handling of Literal datatype to correctly differentiate between blank string values and undefined values, also changed the datatype of rdflib.term.Literal.datatype from Optional[str] to Optional[URIRef] now that all non-URIRef str values will be converted to URIRef. PR #2076.

  • Fixed the generation of VALUES block for federated queries. The values block was including non-variable values like BNodes which resulted in invalid queries. Closed issue #2079. PR #2084.

  • Only register the rdflib.plugins.stores.berkeleydb.BerkeleyDB as a store plugin if the berkeleydb module is present. Closed issue #1816. PR #2096.

  • Fixed serialization of BNodes in TriG. The TriG serializer was only considering BNode references inside a single graph and not counting the BNodes subjects as references when considering if a BNode should be serialized as unlabeled blank nodes (i.e. [ ]), and as a result it was serializing BNodes as unlabeled if they were in fact referencing BNodes in other graphs. PR #2085.

  • Deprecated rdflib.path.evalPath in favor of rdflib.path.eval_path which is PEP-8 compliant. PR #2046

  • Added charset=UTF-8 to the Content-Type header sent when doing an update with SPARQLConnector. Closed issue #2095. PR #2112.

  • Removed the rdflib.plugins.sparql.parserutils.plist class as it served no discernible purpose. PR #2143

  • Changed the TriG serializer to not generate prefixes for empty graph IDs. Closed issue #2154. PR #2160.

  • Fixed handling of relative context files in the JSON-LD parser. Closed issue #2164. PR #2165.

  • Improved failure handling in when computing QName for an unbound namespace. PR #2169.

  • Fixed a typo in the default bound namespace for DCTERMS. PR #2173.

  • Add support for supplying a custom namespace manager to n3() methods. PR #2174.

  • Fixed the query string parameters for SPARQLConnector when using POST method. PR #2180.

  • Fixed extra keyword argument and header handling in SPARQLConnector that resulted in headers from SPARQLConnector.update polluting headers from SPARQLConnector.query vice versa. PR #2183

  • Added version restrictions for dependencies. PR #2187

  • Switch to using importlib for getting the version of RDFLib instead of hard-coding it in __version__. PR #2187.

  • Removed non-runtime extras, for building documentation, running tests and other development operations the versions and dependencies are now managed with Poetry. PR #2187.

  • Fixed a bug that occurred when VALUES was used outside a GROUP BY clause. PR #2188.

  • Fixed a bug that occurred when using SELECT * inside another SELECT *. Closed issue #1722. PR #2190.

  • Added SPARQL DESCRIBE query implementation. Closes issue #479. PR #2221.

  • Fixed a bug in that occurred when multiple rdfs:comment were present on one resource. PR #2254.

  • Fixed rdflib.util._iri2uri() to not quote the netloc parameter. PR #2255.

  • Fixed the HexTuple parser’s handling of input sources to works for more input sources. PR #2255.

  • Fixed the creation of input source objects from IO stream sources. PR #2255.

  • Eliminated the use of the deprecated rdflib.path.evalPath function. PR #2266

  • Added documentation for security considerations and available mitigations. Closed issue #1844. PR #2267.

PRs merged since last release

  • fix: validation issues with examples PR #2269

  • feat: more type hints for rdflib.plugins.sparql PR #2268

  • fix: eliminate use of deprecated rdflib.path.evalPath PR #2266

  • more type-hinting for SPARQL plugin PR #2265

  • feat: add diverse type hints PR #2264

  • feat: add type hints to rdflib.collection PR #2263

  • feat: add type hints to rdflib.util PR #2262

  • feat: add type hints to rdflib.path PR #2261

  • test: fix deprecation warnings PR #2260

  • docs: update test reports PR #2259

  • fix: small InputSource related issues PR #2255

  • defined_namespace_creator: concatenate several rdfs:comments PR #2254

  • feat: add parser type hints PR #2232

  • build: bump versions PR #2231

  • Add SPARQL DESCRIBE query implementation PR #2221

  • build: rename minimum constraints file to evade dependabot PR #2209

  • Fix for SELECT * inside SELECT * bug PR #2190

  • Fixing bug applying VALUES outside of a GROUP BY PR #2188

  • move to poetry for dependency management; consolidate more settings into pyproject.toml PR #2187

  • build: update black to 22.12.0 PR #2186

  • Issue2179 incorrect headers PR #2183

  • Fix missing query string params in sparqlconnector when using POST method PR #2180

  • [] pre-commit autoupdate PR #2178

  • Add namespace_manager argument for n3 method on Paths PR #2174

  • fix DCTERMS prefix typo PR #2173

  • compute_qname handle case where name could be unbound PR #2169

  • Issue 2164 PR #2165

  • build: update black to 22.10.0 PR #2163

  • ci: switch to python 3.11 release PR #2162

  • fix: type errors resulting from new mypy PR #2161

  • do not write prefix for empty graph id, fix #2154 PR #2160

  • Remove redundant class PR #2143

  • Pass service_query to _buildQueryStringForServiceCall instead of a Match PR #2134

  • Add type hint to part in evalServiceQuery PR #2133

  • Remove outdated comment PR #2129

  • fix: type ignore compatibility with latest mypy PR #2127

  • Remove redundant PR template PR #2126

  • build: use 3.11.0-rc.2 PR #2119

  • build: docker images for latest release and main branch PR #2116

  • add charset encoding to SPARQLConnector.update() request. PR #2112

  • Add test for issue #2011 PR #2107

  • chore: rename default branch to main PR #2101

  • Correct a typo in PR #2100

  • feat: add type hints to rdflib.query and related PR #2097

  • fix: Don’t register berkelydb as a store if it is not available on the system PR #2096

  • feat: add type hints to rdflib.plugins.sparql.{algebra,operators} PR #2094

  • test: Fix exclude_lines for coverage PR #2093

  • test: content-type handling with SPARQLStore + CONSTRUCT queries PR #2092

  • ci: publish test reports for mypy and pytest PR #2091

  • test: convert more test from unittest to pytest PR #2089

  • ci: switch from 3.11.0-beta.4 to 3.11.0-rc.1 PR #2087

  • fix: issue with trig reference counting across graphs PR #2085

  • Generate VALUES block for federated queries with variables only PR #2084

  • docs: Add a contributing guide PR #2082

  • feat: Add type hints to rdflib.graph PR #2080

  • fix: handling of Literal datatype PR #2076

  • test: convert some unittest based tests to pytest PR #2075

  • test: honour lax cardinality from test manifests PR #2074

  • Fix passing ConjunctiveGraph as namespace_manager PR #2073

  • fix: always parse HexTuple files as utf-8 PR #2070

  • fix: narrow the context identifier type from Node to IdentifiedNode PR #2069

  • build: set a minimum version for flakeheaven PR #2068

  • chore: remove pre Python 3.7 compatibility code for shutil PR #2066

  • fix: issues with string destination handling in {Graph,Result}.serialize PR #2065

  • build: fix Taskfile.yml for Windows PR #2064

  • test: convert test/test_sparql/ to pytest PR #2063

  • test: convert test/test_sparql/ to pytest PR #2062

  • test: convert test/test_parsers/ to pytest PR #2061

  • test: convert test/test_namespace/ to pytest PR #2060

  • docs: add DOI for RDFLib PR #2058

  • feat: add type hints for and rdflib.plugins.stores PR #2057

  • Toplevel n80x PR #2046

  • docs: add some additional badges PR #2045

  • fix: SPARQL XML result parsing PR #2044

  • chore: remove pre python 3.5 regex related workaround PR #2042

  • fix: import xml.sax.handler from the right place PR #2041

  • test: remove python 2.4 specific behaviour in test PR #2040

  • build: remove drone config PR #2037

  • docs: fix sphinx nitpicky issues PR #2036

  • build: Gitpod integration and Google Cloud Shell Button PR #2034

  • Infixowl cleanup iii PR #2033

  • build: Taskfile improvements PR #2032

  • docs: removed “Other changes” from PR #2031

  • Infixowl coverage ii PR #2024

  • add chunk serializer & tests PR #1968

2022-07-16 RELEASE 6.2.0

This is a minor release that includes bug fixes and features.

User facing changes

This section lists changes that have a potential impact on users of RDFLib, changes with no user impact are not included in this section.

  • SPARQL: Fixed handing of HAVING clause with variable composition. Closed issue #936 and issue #935, PR #1093.

  • JSON-LD parser: better support for content negotiation. Closed issue #1423, PR #1436.

  • Removed the following functions that were marked as deprecated and scheduled for removal in version 6.0.0: Graph.load, Graph.seq, Graph.comment, Graph.label. PR #1527.

  • Use functools.total_ordering to implement most comparison operations for rdflib.paths.Path. Closed issue #685, PR #1528.

  • Fixed error handling for invalid URIs. Closed issue #821, PR #1529.

  • InfixOWL: Fixed handling of cardinality 0. Closed issue #1453 and issue #944, PR #1530.

  • Added quad support to handling to rdflib.graph.ReadOnlyGraphAggregate.quads. Closed issue #430, PR #1590

  • Fixed base validation used when joining URIs. PR #1607.

  • Add GEO defined namespace for GeoSPARQL. Closed issue #1371, PR #1622.

  • Explicitly raise exception when rdflib.plugins.stores.sparqlstore.SPARQLStore.update is called. Closed issue #1032, PR #1623.

  • Added rdflib.plugins.sparql.processor.prepareUpdate. Closed issue #272 and discussion #1581, PR #1624.

  • Added rdflib.namespace.DefinedNamespaceMeta.__dir__. Closed issue #1593, PR #1626.

  • Removed TypeCheckError, SubjectTypeError, PredicateTypeError, ObjectTypeError and ContextTypeError as these exceptions are not raised by RDFLib and their existence will only confuse users which may expect them to be used. Also remove corresponding check_context, check_subject, check_predicate, check_object, check_statement, check_pattern that is unused. PR #1640.

  • Improved the population of the Accept HTTP header so that it is correctly populated for all formats. PR #1643.

  • Fixed some issues with SPARQL Algebra handling/translation. PR #1645.

  • Add nquads to recognized file extensions. PR #1653.

  • Fixed issues that prevented HexTuples roundtripping. PR #1656.

  • Make rdflib.plugins.sparql.operators.unregister_custom_function idempotent. Closed issue #1492, PR #1659.

  • Fixed the handling of escape sequences in the N-Triples and N-Quads parsers. These parsers will now correctly handle strings like "\\r". The time it takes for these parsers to parse strings with escape sequences will be increased, and the increase will be correlated with the amount of escape sequences that occur in a string. For strings with many escape sequences the parsing speed seems to be almost 4 times slower. Closed issue #1655, PR #1663.

    • Also marked rdflib.compat.decodeStringEscape as deprecated as this function is not used anywhere in RDFLib anymore and the utility that it does provide is not implemented correctly. It will be removed in RDFLib 7.0.0

  • Added an abstract class IdentifiedNode as a superclass of BNode and URIRef. Closed issue #1526, PR #1680.

  • Fixed turtle serialization of rdf:type in subject, object. Closed issue #1649, PR #1649.

  • Fixed turtle serialization of PNames that contain brackets. Closed issue #1661, PR #1678.

  • Added support for selecting which namespace prefixes to bind. Closed issue #1679 and issue #1880, PR #1686, PR #1845 and PR #2018.

    • Also added ConjunctiveGraph.get_graph.

    • Also added an override argument to Store.bind which behaves similarly to the override parameter for NamespaceManager.bind.

    • Also fixed handing of support of the override parameter to NamespaceManager.bind by passing.

  • Eliminated a DeprecationWarning related to plugin loading issue #1631, PR #1694.

  • Removed the rdflib.graph.ContextNode and rdflib.graph.DatasetQuad type aliases. These were not being widely used in RDFLib and were also not correct. PR #1695.

  • Added DefinedNamespace.as_jsonld_context. PR #1706.

  • Added rdflib.namespace.WGS for WGS84. Closed issue #1709, PR #1710.

  • Improved performance of DefinedNamespace by caching attribute values. PR #1718.

  • Only configure python logging if sys.stderr has a isatty attribute. Closed issue #1760, PR #1761.

  • Removed unused rdflib.compat.etree_register_namespace. PR #1768.

  • Fixed numeric shortcut handling in rdflib.util.from_n3. Closed issue #1769, PR #1771.

  • Add ability to detect and mark ill-typed literals. Closed issue #1757 and issue #848, PR #1773 and PR #2003.

  • Optimized NamespaceManager.compute_qname by caching validity. PR #1779.

  • SPARQL: Fixed the handling of EXISTS inside BIND for SPARQL. This was raising an exception during evaluation before but is now correctly handled. Closed issue #1472, PR #1794.

  • Propagate exceptions from SPARQL TSV result parser. Closed issue #1477, PR #1809

  • Eliminate usage of rdflib.term.RDFLibGenid as a type as this caused issues with querying. Closed issue #1808, PR #1821

  • Fixed handing of DefinedNamespace control attributes so that inspect.signature works correctly on defined namespaces. PR #1825.

  • Fixed namespace rebinding in Memory, SimpleMemory and BerkelyDB stores. Closed issue #1826, PR #1843.

  • Fixed issues with the N3 serializer. Closed issue #1701 and issue #1807, PR #1858:

    • The N3 serializer was incorrectly considers a subject as seralized if it is serialized in a quoted graph.

    • The N3 serializer does not consider that the predicate of a triple can also be a graph.

  • Added NamespaceManager.expand_curie. Closed issue #1868, PR #1869.

  • Added Literal.__sub__ and support for datetimes to both Literal.__add__ and Literal.__sub__. PR #1870.

  • SPARQL: Fix None/undefined handing in GROUP_CONCAT. Closed issue #1467, PR #1887.

  • SPARQL: Fixed result handling for SERVICE directive. Closed issue #1278, PR #1894.

  • Change the skolem default authority for RDFLib from to and also change other uses of to Closed issue #1824, PR #1901.

  • Fixes handling of non-ascii characters in IRIs. Closed issue #1429, PR #1902.

  • Pass generate to NamespaceManager.compute_qname from NamespaceManager.compute_qname_strict so it raises an error in the same case as the “non-strict” version. PR #1934.

  • Log warnings when encountering ill-typed literals. PR #1944.

  • Fixed error handling in TriX serializer. PR #1945.

  • Fixed QName generation in XML serializer. PR #1951

  • Remove unnecessary hex expansion for PN_LOCAL in SPARQL parser. Closed issue #1957, PR #1959.

  • Changed the TriX parser to support both trix and TriX as root element. PR #1966.

  • Fix SPARQL CSV result serialization of blank nodes. PR #1979.

  • Added a URIRef.fragment property. PR #1991.

  • Remove superfluous newline from N-Triples output. Closed issue #1998, PR #1999.

  • Added a bunch of type hints. The following modules have nearly complete type hints now:

    • rdflib.namespace

    • rdflib.term

    • rdflib.parser

PRs merged since last release

  • Fallback to old Store.bind signature on TypeError PR #2018

  • Fix/ignore flake8 errors in rdflib/ PR #2016

  • Update black to 22.6.0 PR #2015

  • Fix for #1873 avoid AttributeError raised … PR #2013

  • Change Literal.ill_formed to Literal.ill_typed PR #2003

  • Continuation of infixowl update and coverage improvement PR #2001

  • Update test README PR #2000

  • Remove extra newline from N-Triples output PR #1999

  • Infixowl cleanup PR #1996

  • Add line-specific # noqa to, remove exclusion from pyproject.toml PR #1994

  • Bump actions/setup-python from 3 to 4 PR #1992

  • Add fragment property to URIRef PR #1991

  • test: run tests on python 3.11 also PR #1989

  • test: rework SPARQL test suite PR #1988

  • test: rework RDF/XML test suite PR #1987

  • Rework turtle-like test suites PR #1986

  • Improve docstring of Graph.serializef PR #1984

  • Add more tests for graph_diff PR #1983

  • Convert some more graph tests to pytest PR #1982

  • Fix SPARQL test data PR #1981

  • Add more namespaces to test utils PR #1980

  • Fix SPARQL CSV result serialization of blank nodes PR #1979

  • correct italic markup in plugin stores docs PR #1977

  • escape literal * symbol in rdflib.paths docs PR #1976

  • Update sphinx requirement from <5 to <6 PR #1975

  • Remove pytest-subtest PR #1973

  • style: fix/ignore flake8 errors in store related code PR #1971

  • build: speed up flake8 by ignoring test data PR #1970

  • Fix trix parser PR #1966

  • Add more typing for SPARQL PR #1965

  • style: fix/ignore flake8 errors in rdflib/plugins/sparql/ PR #1964

  • test: fix None comparisons PR #1963

  • style: fix/ingore some flake8 errors in rdflib/ PR #1962

  • test: convert test/jsonld/ to pytest PR #1961

  • Fix for issue1957 sparql parser percent encoded reserved chars PR #1959

  • test: convert to pytest PR #1956

  • edit tabs to spaces PR #1952

  • fix sonarcloud-reported bug in xmlwriter, add test PR #1951

  • test: convert to pytest PR #1949

  • style: ignore flake8 name errors for existing names PR #1948

  • test: remove unused imports in test code PR #1947

  • test: fix GraphHelper.quad_set handling of Dataset PR #1946

  • fix for sonarcloud-reported bug PR #1945

  • Logging exceptions from Literal value converters PR #1944

  • fix outmoded x and x or y idiom in PR #1943

  • Address lingering instances of deprecated tempfile.mktemp PR #1942

  • Add CODEOWNERS PR #1941

  • Bump actions/setup-python from 2 to 3 PR #1940

  • Bump actions/checkout from 2 to 3 PR #1939

  • Bump actions/cache from 2 to 3 PR #1938

  • Bump actions/setup-java from 2 to 3 PR #1937

  • test: move rdfs.ttl into test/data/defined_namespaces PR #1936

  • feat: add tests and typing for rdflib.utils.{get_tree,find_roots} PR #1935

  • Passing “generate” option through in compute_qname_strict PR #1934

  • build: add GitHub Actions to dependabot PR #1933

  • test: move EARL and RDFT namespaces to separate files PR #1931

  • Removed old and unused test/data/suites/DAWG/data-r2 PR #1930

  • Added SPARQL unicode numeric codepoint escape tests PR #1929

  • style: enable and baseline flakeheaven PR #1928

  • feat: add typing for rdflib/plugins/sparql PR #1926

  • Switch to latest DAWG test suite PR #1925

  • Move test/data/suites/DAWG/rdflib PR #1924

  • style: normalize quoting with black PR #1916

  • Added test for example at CBD definition. Fixes #1914. PR #1915

  • Rename test/data/suites/DAWG/data-r2-1.0 PR #1908

  • Move DAWG/data-sparql11 to w3c/sparql11/data-sparql11 PR #1907

  • Add n3 test suite runner PR #1906

  • Migrated the various test_* test files into test/test_w3c_spec/ PR #1904

  • Fixes #1429, add iri2uri PR #1902

  • Fix for #1824 s,,,g PR #1901

  • test: Add more tests for Graph serialize PR #1898

  • test: earlier assert rewrite for test utitlities PR #1897

  • test: Add more tests for test utilities PR #1896

  • test: add more graph variants highlighting bugs PR #1895

  • Fix simple literals returned as NULL using SERVICE (issue #1278) PR #1894

  • W3 test reorg PR #1891

  • Improved mock HTTP Server PR #1888

  • Fix None/undefined handing in GROUP_CONCAT PR #1887

  • Move test utility modules into test/utils/ PR #1879

  • Move coveralls to GitHub Actions PR #1877

  • test: run doctest on rst files in docs/ PR #1875

  • Add tests demonstrating forward-slash behaviors in Turtle, JSON-LD, and SPARQL PR #1872

  • Literal datetime sub PR #1870

  • resolve issue1868, add a method to expand qname to URI PR #1869

  • build: add Taskfile with development tasks PR #1867

  • Delete basically-unusable example PR #1866

  • Move test/translate_algebra into test/data PR #1864

  • test: move test/variants into test/data PR #1862

  • test: convert test/test_serializers/ to pytest PR #1861

  • Add remote file fetcher and N3 test suite PR #1860

  • fix: two issues with the N3 serializer PR #1858

  • Tell coveragepy to ignore type checking code and ... PR #1855

  • docs: switch to sphinx-autodoc-typehints PR #1854

  • More type hints for rdflib.graph and related PR #1853

  • Remove testing and debug code from rdflib PR #1849

  • text: fix pytest config PR #1846

  • fix: Raise ValueError for unsupported bind_namespace values PR #1845

  • fix: namespace rebinding in Memory, SimpleMemory and BerkelyDB stores. PR #1843

  • test re-org PR #1838

  • fix: DefinedNamespace: fixed handling of control attributes. PR #1825

  • docs: change term reference to italicized PR #1823

  • Fix issue 1808 PR #1821

  • build: disable building of epub on PR #1820

  • docs: fix sphinx warnings PR #1818

  • style: fix isort config PR #1817

  • Migrate to pytest, relocate in subfolder PR #1813

  • test: add a test for n3 serialization with formula PR #1812

  • refactor: convert to pytest PR #1811

  • test: Add tests for SPARQL parsing and serialization PR #1810

  • fix: propagate exceptions from SPARQL TSV result parser PR #1809

  • Migrate more tests to pytest PR #1806

  • Convert test_sparql/ to pytest PR #1805

  • Ignore pyparsing type hints PR #1802

  • Add two xfails related to Example 2 from RDF 1.1 TriG specification PR #1801

  • change pytest.skip to pytest.xfail PR #1799

  • Black tests PR #1798

  • Convert test/ to pytest PR #1795

  • Fix handling of EXISTS inside BIND PR #1794

  • update test_graph_generators to import from PR #1792

  • Test reorg (continued) PR #1788

  • Edit readme PR #1787

  • Add tests for computing qname on invalid URIs PR #1783

  • Convert namespace tests to pytest PR #1782

  • Update to black 22.3.0 because of issue with click PR #1780

  • Isvaliduri optimization PR #1779

  • Add tests for the parsing of literals for the turtle family of formats PR #1778

  • Migrate some tests to pytest PR #1774

  • Add ability to detect and mark ill-typed literals PR #1773

  • Fix for issue1769 PR #1771

  • Remove unused compatability function PR #1768

  • Add pull request guidelines and template. PR #1767

  • Rename some tests PR #1766

  • Add config for PR #1764

  • Fix black PR #1763

  • Check if sys.stderr has isatty PR #1761

  • Remove redundant type ignores and fix typing errors PR #1759

  • Add documentation about type hints PR #1751

  • Enable showing typehints in sphinx function/method signature and content PR #1728

  • Update reference to black.toml PR #1721

  • black formatting for rdflib/ PR #1720

  • Use the correct warnings module PR #1719

  • DefinedNamespaceMeta.__getitem__ is slow PR #1718

  • Introduce WGS84 DefinedNamespace PR #1710

  • #1699 Document Graph behavior regarding context in constructor docstring PR #1707

  • Generate JSON-LD context from a DefinedNamespace PR #1706

  • Use the property built-in as a decorator PR #1703

  • Apply IdentifiedNode to Graph iterators PR #1697

  • Remove singly-used alias obviated by IdentifiedNode PR #1695

  • Unify plugin loading PR #1694

  • Rename black.toml to pyproject.toml PR #1692

  • Improved tox config PR #1691

  • Add isort PR #1689

  • Fix black PR #1688

  • Bind prefixes choices PR #1686

  • Fix turtle serialization of rdf:type in subject, object PR #1684

  • Add typing to rdflib.term PR #1683

  • Add a class diagram for terms. PR #1682

  • Add typing to rdflib.namespace PR #1681

  • Add IdentifiedNode abstract intermediary class PR #1680

  • Fix turtle serialization of PNames that contain brackets PR #1678

  • Add a test case for a prefix followed by dot in Turtle format PR #1677

  • Bump sphinx from 4.3.2 to 4.4.0 PR #1675

  • pre-commit and pre-commit-ci PR #1672

  • Eliminate star import PR #1667

  • Fixed the handling of escape sequences in the ntriples and nquads parsers PR #1663

  • Remove narrow build detection PR #1660

  • Make unregister_custom_function idempotent PR #1659

  • Allow hext to participate in RDF format roundtripping PR #1656

  • change tests to use urn:example PR #1654

  • add nquads to recognised file extensions PR #1653

  • Don’t update SUFFIX_FORMAT_MAP in plugins/parsers/ PR #1652

  • Add Contributor Covenant Code of Conduct PR #1651

  • add test of ConjunctiveGraph operators PR #1647

  • added three tests to cover changes made by the pull request #1361 PR #1645

  • Fixed and refactored roundtrip, n3_suite and nt_suite tests PR #1644

  • Allow parse of RDF from URL with all RDF Media Types PR #1643

  • Black rdflib except for rdflib/namespace/ PR #1642

  • Remove (TypeCheck|SubjectType|PredicateType|ObjectType)Error and related PR #1640

  • Rename test/ so pytest picks it up PR #1639

  • Convert translate_algebra tests to pytest PR #1636

  • Add some type annotations to JSON-LD code PR #1634

  • Add some typing for evaluation related functions in the SPARQL plugin. PR #1633

  • Add classifier for python 3.10 PR #1630

  • Add tests for update method on Graph(store="SPARQLStore") PR #1629

  • Add dir to DefinedNamespaceMeta. PR #1626

  • Add version to docker-compose config for tests PR #1625

  • Feature prepareupdate PR #1624

  • Fix issue1032 error on sparqlstore update PR #1623

  • Restore geosparql defined namespace PR #1622

  • Fix typing errors in tests PR #1621

  • Compile docs in GitHub Actions CI PR #1620

  • Scale down CI checks PR #1619

  • Revert error-raising change, enable Exception to be raised. PR #1607

  • Fix for issue430 PR #1590

  • Fix for infixowl issues 1453 and 944 PR #1530

  • Fix self.line typos in call to BadSyntax. PR #1529

  • Overdue restoration of functools total_order decorator. PR #1528

  • Remove deprecated PR #1527

  • Clean up documentation PR #1525

  • TypeErrors from Results do not propagate through list creation PR #1523

  • Add typing for parsers PR #1522

  • Fix for issue #837. Graph.[subjects|objects|predicates] optionally return uniques. PR #1520

  • Bump sphinx from 4.3.1 to 4.3.2 PR #1518

  • Start support for mypy –strict PR #1515

  • Allow URLInputSource to get content-negotiation links from the Link headers PR #1436

  • Fix issue #936 HAVING clause with variable comparison not correctly evaluated PR #1093

2021-12-20 RELEASE 6.1.1

Better testing and tidier code.

This is a semi-major release that:

  • add support for Python 3.10

  • updates the test suite to pytest (from nose)

  • tidies up a lot of continuous integration

  • gets more tests tested, not skipped

  • implements lots of mypy tests

  • updates several parsers and serializers

    • supports the new HexTuples format!

  • many bug fixes

This release contains many, many hours of updates from Iwan Aucamp, so thank you Iwan!

PRs merged since last release:

  • Update the guidelines for writing tests PR #1517

  • Updated tox config to run mypy in default environment PR #1450

  • Add type annotations to constructor parameters in Literal PR #1498

  • Increase fuseki start timeout from 15 to 30 seconds PR #1516

  • Forbid truthy values for lang when initializing Literal PR #1494

  • Add Py 3.10 to testing envs PR #1473

  • Add mypy to GitHub actions validate workflow PR #1512

  • Improve error messages from PR #1510

  • Fix pipeline triggers PR #1511

  • Change python version used for mypy to 3.7 PR #1514

  • Quench nt test userwarn PR #1500

  • Raise a more specific Exception when lang isn’t valid PR #1497

  • Fix for issue893 PR #1504

  • Fix for issue 893 PR #1501

  • Re-make of nicholascar’s “Concise Bounded Description” PR #968 … PR #1502

  • Remove deprecated Statement class PR #1496

  • Fix BNode.skolemize() returning a URIRef instead of an RDFLibGenid. PR #1493

  • demo 980 resolution PR #1495

  • Hextuples Serializer PR #1489

  • Add bindings for rdflib namespaces. Import DCAM. PR #1491

  • fix for issue 1484 raised and solved by Graham Klyne: PR #1490

  • SDO HTTPS and DN creator script PR #1485

  • Fix typing of create_input_source PR #1487

  • guess_format() cater for JSON-LD files ending .json-ld PR #1486

  • Add GitHub actions workflow for validation PR #1461

  • Improved script for running with fuseki PR #1476

  • RFC: Add PythonInputSource to create py-based graphs PR #1463

  • Adapt for pytest and add back import of os in rdflib/ PR #1480

  • Make the test pass on windows PR #1478

  • Add type hints PR #1449

  • Fix shield for CI status PR #1474

  • Fix test files with bare code PR #1481

  • Remove some remaining nosetest import PR #1482

  • Fix JSON-LD data import adds trailing slashes to IRIs (#1443) PR #1456

  • Iwana 20211114 t1305 pytestx PR #1460

  • Migrate from nosetest to pytest PR #1452

  • Add import of os PR #1464

  • replace pkg_resources with importlib.metadata PR #1445

  • A new Turtle serializer PR #1425

  • Fix typos discovered by codespell PR #1446

  • Use assertTrue instead of assert_ for python 3.11 compatibility. PR #1448

  • Undefined name: tmppath –> self.tmppath PR #1438

  • Fix Graph.parse URL handling on windows PR #1441

  • Make Store.namespaces an empty generator PR #1432

  • Export DCMITYPE PR #1433

2021-12-20 RELEASE 6.1.0

A slightly messed-up release of what is now 6.1.1. Do not use!

2021-10-10 RELEASE 6.0.2

Minor release to add OWL.rational & OWL.real which are needed to allow the OWL-RL package to use only rdflib namespaces, not it’s own versions.

  • Add owl:rational and owl:real to match standard. PR #1428

A few other small things have been added, see the following merged PRs list:

  • rename arg LOVE to ns in rdfpipe PR #1426

  • Remove Tox reference to Python 3.6 PR #1422

  • Add Brick DefinedNamespace PR #1419

  • Use setName on TokenConverter to set the name property PR #1409

  • Add test for adding JSON-LD to guess_format() PR #1408

  • Fix mypy type errors and add mypy to .drone.yml PR #1407

2021-09-17 RELEASE 6.0.1

Minor release to fix a few small errors, in particular with JSON-LD parsing & serializing integration from rdflib-jsonld. Also, a few other niceties, such as allowing graph add(), remove() etc. to be chainable.

  • Add test for adding JSON-LD to guess_format() PR #1408

  • Add JSON-LD to guess_format() PR #1403

  • add dateTimeStamp, fundamental & constraining facets, 7-prop data model PR #1399

  • fix: remove log message on import PR #1398

  • Make graph and other methods chainable PR #1394

  • fix: use correct name for json-ld PR #1388

  • Allowing Container Membership Properties in RDF namespace (#873) PR #1386

  • Update intro_to_sparql.rst PR #1386

  • Iterate over dataset return quads PR #1382

2021-07-20 RELEASE 6.0.0

6.0.0 is a major stable release that drops support for Python 2 and Python 3 < 3.7. Type hinting is now present in much of the toolkit as a result.

It includes the formerly independent JSON-LD parser/serializer, improvements to Namespaces that allow for IDE namespace prompting, simplified use of g.serialize() (turtle default, no need to decode()) and many other updates to documentation, store backends and so on.

Performance of the in-memory store has also improved since Python 3.6 dictionary improvements.

There are numerous supplementary improvements to the toolkit too, such as:

  • inclusion of Docker files for easier CI/CD

  • black config files for standardised code formatting

  • improved testing with mock SPARQL stores, rather than a reliance on DBPedia etc

All PRs merged since 5.0.0:

  • Fixes 1190 - pin major version of pyparsing PR #1366

  • Add init for shared jsonld module PR #1365

  • Update README with chat info PR #1363

  • add xsd dayTimeDuration and yearMonthDuration PR #1364

  • Updated PR #1359

  • Migration from ClosedNamespace to DeclaredNamespace PR #1074

  • Add @expectedFailure unit tests for #1294 and type annotations for PR #1346

  • JSON-LD Integration PR #1354

  • ENH: Make ClosedNamespace extend Namespace PR #1213

  • Add unit test for #919 and more type hints for sparqlconnector and sparqlstore PR #1348

  • fix #876 Updated to add xsd:normalizedString and xsd:token support for Literals PR #1102

  • Dev stack update PR #1355

  • Add make coverage instructions to README PR #1353

  • Improve running tests locally PR #1352

  • support day, month and year function for date PR #1154

  • Prevent from_n3 from unescaping \xhh PR #1343

  • Complete clean up of docs for 6.0.0 PR #1296

  • pathname2url removal PR #1288

  • Replace Sleepycat with BerkeleyDB PR #1347

  • Replace use of DBPedia with the new SimpleHTTPMock PR #1345

  • Update graph operator overloading for subclasses PR #1349

  • Speedup Literal.hash and Literal.eq by accessing directly _da… PR #1321

  • Implemented function translateAlgebra. This functions takes a SPARQL … PR #1322

  • attempt at adding coveralls support to drone runs PR #1337

  • Fix SPARQL update parsing to handle arbitrary amounts of triples in inserts PR #1340

  • Add pathlib.PurePath support for Graph.serialize and Graph.parse PR #1309

  • dataset examples file PR #1289

  • Add handling for 308 (Permanent Redirect) PR #1342

  • Speedup of __add_triple_context PR #1320

  • Fix prov ns PR #1318

  • Speedup __ctx_to_str. PR #1319

  • Speedup decodeUnicodeEscape by avoiding useless string replace. PR #1324

  • Fix errors reported by mypy PR #1330

  • Require setuptools, rdflib/plugins/sparql/ and rdflib/ import pkg_resources PR #1339

  • Fix tox config PR #1313

  • Fix formatting of xsd:decimal PR #1335

  • Add tests for issue #1299 PR #1328

  • Add special handling for gYear and gYearMonth PR #1315

  • Replace incomplete example in intro_to_sparql.rst PR #1331

  • Added unit test for issue #977. PR #1112

  • Don’t sort variables in TXTResultSerializer PR #1310

  • handle encoding of base64Binary Literals PR #1258

  • Add tests for Graph.transitive_{subjects,objects} PR #1307

  • Changed to support passing fully qualified queries through the graph … PR #1253

  • Upgrade to GitHub-native Dependabot PR #1298

  • Fix transitive_objects/subjects docstrings and signatures PR #1305

  • Fix typo in ClosedNamespace doc string PR #1293

  • Allow parentheses in uri PR #1280

  • Add notes about how to install from git PR #1286

  • Feature/forward version to 6.0.0-alpha PR #1285

  • speedup notation3/turtle parser PR #1272

  • Correct behaviour of compute_qname for URNs PR #1274

  • Speedup __add_triple_context. PR #1271

  • Feature/coverage configuration PR #1267

  • optimize sparql.Bindings PR #1192

  • issue_771_add_key_error_if_spaces PR #1070

  • Typo fix PR #1254

  • Adding Namespace.contains() PR #1237

  • Add a Drone config file. PR #1247

  • Add sentence on names not valid as Python IDs. PR #1234

  • Add trig mimetype PR #1238

  • Move flake8 config PR #1239

  • Update SPARQL tests since the DBpedia was updated PR #1240

  • fix foaf ClosedNamespace PR #1220

  • add GeoSPARQL ClosedNamespace PR #1221

  • docs: fix simple typo, -> yield PR #1223

  • do not use current time in sparql TIMEZONE PR #1193

  • Reset graph on exit from context PR #1206

  • Fix usage of default-graph for POST and introduce POST_FORM PR #1185

  • Changes to graph.serialize() PR #1183

  • rd2dot Escape HTML in node label and URI text PR #1209

  • tests: retry on network error (CI) PR #1203

  • Add documentation and type hints for rdflib.query.Result and rdflib.graph.Graph PR #1211

  • fix typo PR #1218

  • Add architecture ppc64le to travis build PR #1212

  • small cleanups PR #1191

  • Remove the usage of assert in the SPARQLConnector PR #1186

  • Remove requests PR #1175

  • Support parsing paths specified with pathlib PR #1180

  • URI Validation Performance Improvements PR #1177

  • Fix serialize with multiple disks on windows PR #1172

  • Fix for issue #629 - Arithmetic Operations of DateTime in SPARQL PR #1061

  • Fixes #1043. PR #1054

  • N3 parser: do not create formulas if the Turtle mode is activated PR #1142

  • Move to using graph.parse() rather than deprecated graph.load() PR #1167

  • Small improvement to serialize docs PR #1162

  • Issue 1160 missing url fragment PR #1163

  • remove import side-effects PR #1156

  • Docs update PR #1161

  • replace cgi by html, fixes issue #1110 PR #1152

  • Deprecate some more Graph API surface PR #1151

  • Add deprecation warning on graph.load() PR #1150

  • Remove all remnants of Python2 compatibility PR #1149

  • make csv2rdf work in py3 PR #1117

  • Add a dir attribute to a closed namespace PR #1134

  • improved Graph().parse() PR #1140

  • Discussion around new dict-based store implementation PR #1133

  • fix 913 PR #1139

  • Make parsers CharacterStream aware PR #1145

  • More Black formatting changes PR #1146

  • Fix comment PR #1130

  • Updating to solve issue #801 PR #1044

  • Fix namespaces for SOSA and SSN. Fix #1126. PR #1128

  • Create pull request template PR #1114

  • BNode context dicts for NT and N-Quads parsers PR #1108

  • Allow distinct blank node contexts from one NTriples parser to the next (#980) PR #1107

  • Autodetect parse() format PR #1046

  • fix #910: Updated so that union includes results of both branches, even when identical. PR #1057

  • Removal of six & styling PR #1051

  • Add SERVICE clause to documentation PR #1041

  • add test with ubuntu 20.04 PR #1038

  • Improved logo PR #1037

  • Add requests to the tests_requirements PR #1036

  • Set update endpoint similar to query endpoint for sparqlstore if only one is given PR #1033

  • fix shebang typo PR #1034

  • Add the content type ‘application/sparql-update’ when preparing a SPARQL update request PR #1022

  • Fix typo in PR #1030

  • add Python 3.8 PR #1023

  • Fix n3 parser exponent syntax of floats with leading dot. PR #1012

  • DOC: Use sphinxcontrib-apidoc and various cleanups PR #1010

  • FIX: Change is comparison to == for tuple PR #1009

  • Update copyright year in docs PR #1006

2020-04-18 RELEASE 5.0.0

5.0.0 is a major stable release and is the last release to support Python 2 & 3.4. 5.0.0 is mostly backwards- compatible with 4.2.2 and is intended for long-term, bug fix only support.

5.0.0 comes two weeks after the 5.0.0RC1 and includes a small number of additional bug fixes. Note that rdflib-jsonld has released a version 0.5.0 to be compatible with rdflib 5.0.0.

All PRs merged since 5.0.0RC1:

General Bugs Fixed:

  • Fix n3 parser exponent syntax of floats with leading dot. PR #1012

  • FIX: Change is comparison to == for tuple PR #1009

  • fix #913 : Added _parseBoolean function to enforce correct Lexical-to-value mapping PR #995

Enhanced Features:


  • CONSTRUCT resolve with initBindings fixes #1001 PR #1002

Documentation Fixes:

  • DOC: Use sphinxcontrib-apidoc and various cleanups PR #1010

  • Update copyright year in docs PR #1006

  • slightly improved styling, small index text changes PR #1004

2020-04-04 RELEASE 5.0.0RC1

After more than three years, RDFLib 5.0.0rc1 is finally released.

This is a rollup of all of the bugfixes merged, and features introduced to RDFLib since RDFLib 4.2.2 was released in Jan 2017.

While all effort was taken to minimize breaking changes in this release, there are some.

Please see the upgrade4to5 document in the docs directory for more information on some specific differences from 4.2.2 to 5.0.0.

All issues closed and PRs merged since 4.2.2:

General Bugs Fixed:

  • Pr 451 redux PR #978

  • NTriples fails to parse URIs with only a scheme ISSUE #920, PR #974

  • Cannot clone on windows - Remove colons from test result files. ISSUE #901, PR #971

  • Add requirement for requests to PR #969

  • fixed URIRef including native unicode characters PR #961

  • DCTERMS.format not working ISSUE #932

  • infixowl.manchesterSyntax do not encode strings PR #906

  • Fix blank node label to not contain ‘_:’ during parsing PR #886

  • rename new SPARQLWrapper to SPARQLConnector PR #872

  • Fix #859. Unquote and Uriquote Literal Datatype. PR #860

  • Parsing nquads ISSUE #786

  • ntriples spec allows for upper-cased lang tag, fixes #782 PR #784, ISSUE #782

  • Adds escaped single quote to literal parser PR #736

  • N3 parse error on single quote within single quotes ISSUE #732

  • Fixed #725 PR #730

  • test for issue #725: canonicalization collapses BNodes PR #726

  • RGDA1 graph canonicalization sometimes still collapses distinct BNodes ISSUE #725

  • Accept header should use a q parameter PR #720

  • Added test for Issue #682 and fixed. PR #718

  • Incompatibility with Python3: unichr ISSUE #687

  • include colon in ALLOWED_NAME_CHARS PR #663

  • fix compute_qname missing namespaces PR #649

  • RDFa parsing Error! __init__() got an unexpected keyword argument ‘encoding’ ISSUE #639

  • Bugfix: term.Literal.__add__ PR #451

  • fixup of #443 PR #445

  • Microdata to rdf second edition bak PR #444

Enhanced Features:

  • Register additional serializer plugins for SPARQL mime types. PR #987

  • Pr 388 redux PR #979

  • Allows RDF terms introduced by JSON-LD 1.1 PR #970

  • make SPARQLConnector work with DBpedia PR #941

  • ClosedNamespace returns right exception for way of access PR #866

  • Not adding all namespaces for n3 serializer PR #832

  • Adds basic support of xsd:duration PR #808

  • Add possibility to set authority and basepath to skolemize graph PR #807

  • Change notation3 list realization to non-recursive function. PR #805

  • Suppress warning for not using custom encoding. PR #800

  • Add support to parsing large xml inputs ISSUE #749 PR #750

  • improve hash efficiency by directly using str/unicode hash PR #746

  • Added the csvw prefix to the RDFa initial context. PR #594

  • syncing changes from pyMicrodata PR #587

  • Microdata parser: updated the parser to the latest version of the microdata->rdf note (published in December 2014) PR #443

  • Literal.toPython() support for xsd:hexBinary PR #388


  • Total order patch patch PR #862

  • use <<= instead of deprecated << PR #861

  • Fix #847 PR #856

  • RDF Literal "1"^^xsd:boolean should not coerce to True ISSUE #847

  • Makes NOW() return an UTC date PR #844

  • NOW() SPARQL should return an xsd:dateTime with a timezone ISSUE #843

  • fix property paths bug: issue #715 PR #822, ISSUE #715

  • MulPath: correct behaviour of n3() PR #820

  • Literal total ordering PR #793

  • Remove SPARQLWrapper dependency PR #744

  • made UNION faster by not preventing duplicates PR #741

  • added a hook to add custom functions to SPARQL PR #723

  • Issue714 PR #717

  • Use <<= instead of deprecated << in SPARQL parser PR #417

  • Custom FILTER function for SPARQL engine ISSUE #274

Code Quality and Cleanups:

  • a slightly opinionated autopep8 run PR #870

  • remove rdfa and microdata parsers from core RDFLib PR #828

  • ClosedNamespace KeyError -> AttributeError PR #827

  • typo in rdflib/plugins/sparql/ ISSUE #760

  • Fix logging in interactive mode PR #731

  • make namespace module flake8-compliant, change exceptions in that mod… PR #711

  • delete ISSUE #669

  • code duplication issue between rdflib and pymicrodata ISSUE #582

  • Transition from 2to3 to use of to be merged in 5.0.0-dev PR #519

  • sparqlstore drop deprecated methods and args PR #516

  • python3 code seems shockingly inefficient ISSUE #440

  • removed md5_term_hash, fixes #240 PR #439, ISSUE #240


  • 3.7 for travis PR #864

  • Added trig unit tests to highlight some current parsing/serializing issues PR #431

Documentation Fixes:

  • Fix a doc string in the query module PR #976

  • Make the license field use an SPDX identifier PR #789

  • Update PR #764

  • Update namespaces_and_bindings.rst PR #757

  • DOC: rdflib-jsonld, https uris PR #712

  • make doctest support py2/py3 ISSUE #707

  • pip install rdflib (as per gets OSError on Mint 18.1 ISSUE #704

2017-01-29 RELEASE 4.2.2

This is a bug-fix release, and the last release in the 4.X.X series.

Bug fixes:

  • SPARQL bugs fixed:

    • Fix for filters in sub-queries #693

    • Fixed bind, initBindings and filter problems #294 #555 #580 #586 #601 #615 #617 #619 #630 #653 #686 #688 #692

    • Fixed unexpected None value in SPARQL-update #633 #634

    • Fix sparql, group by and count of null values with optional #631

    • Fixed sparql sub-query and aggregation bugs #607 #610 #628 #694

    • Fixed parsing Complex BGPs as triples #622 #623

    • Fixed DISTINCT being ignored inside aggregate functions #404 #611 #678

    • Fix unicode encoding errors in sparql processor #446 #599

    • Fixed SPARQL select nothing no longer returning a None row #554 #592

    • Fixed aggregate operators COUNT and SAMPLE to ignore unbound / NULL values #564 #563 #567 #568

    • Fix sparql relative uris #523 #524

    • SPARQL can now compare xsd:date type as well, fixes #532 #532 #533

    • fix sparql path order on python3: “TypeError: unorderable types: SequencePath() < SequencePath()”” #492 #525

    • SPARQL parser now robust to spurious semicolon #381 #528

    • Let paths be comparable against all nodes even in py3 (preparedQuery error) #545 #552

    • Made behavior of initN in update and query more consistent #579 #600

  • SparqlStore:

    • SparqlStore now closes underlying urllib response body #638 #683

    • SparqlStore injectPrefixes only modifies query if prefixes present and if adds a newline in between #521 #522

  • Fixes and tests for AuditableStore #537 #557

  • Trig bugs fixed:

    • trig export of multiple graphs assigns wrong prefixes to prefixedNames #679

    • Trig serialiser writing empty named graph name for default graph #433

    • Trig parser can creating multiple contexts for the default graph #432

    • Trig serialisation handling prefixes incorrectly #428 #699

  • Fixed Nquads parser handling of triples in default graph #535 #536

  • Fixed TypeError in Turtle serializer (unorderable types: DocumentFragment() > DocumentFragment()) #613 #648 #666 #676

  • Fixed serialization and parsing of inf/nan #655 #658

  • Fixed RDFa parser from failing on time elements with child nodes #576 #577

  • Fix double reduction of \ escapes in from_n3 #546 #548

  • Fixed handling of xsd:base64Binary #646 #674

  • Fixed Collection.setitem broken #604 #605

  • Fix ImportError when main already loaded #616

  • Fixed broken top_level.txt file in distribution #571 #572 #573


  • Added support for Python 3.5+ #526

  • More aliases for common formats (nt, turtle) #701

  • Improved RDF1.1 ntriples support #695 #700

  • Dependencies updated and improved compatibility with pyparsing, html5lib, SPARQLWrapper and elementtree #550 #589 #606 #641 #642 #650 #671 #675 #684 #696

  • Improved prefix for SPARQL namespace in XML serialization #493 #588

  • Performance improvements:

    • SPARQL Aggregation functions don’t build up memory for each row #678

    • Collections now support += (iadd), fixes slow creation of large lists #609 #612 #691

    • SPARQL Optimisation to expand BGPs in a smarter way #547

  • SPARQLStore improvements

    • improved SPARQLStore BNode customizability #511 #512 #513 #603

    • Adding the option of using POST for long queries in SPARQLStore #672 #673

    • Exposed the timeout of SPARQLWrapper #531

  • SPARQL prepared query now carries the original (unparsed) parameters #565

  • added .n3 methods for path objects #553

  • Added support for xsd:gYear and xsd:gYearMonth #635 #636

  • Allow duplicates in rdf:List #223 #690

  • Improved slicing of Resource objects #529


  • cleanup: SPARQL Prologue and Query new style classes #566

  • Reduce amount of warnings, especially closing opened file pointers #518 #651

  • Improved ntriples parsing exceptions to actually tell you what’s wrong #640 #643

  • remove ancient and broken 2.3 support code. #680 #681

  • Logger output improved #662

  • properly cite RGDA1 #624

  • Avoid class reference to imported function #574 #578

  • Use find_packages for package discovery. #590

  • Prepared ClosedNamespace (and _RDFNamespace) to inherit from Namespace (5.0.0) #551 #595

  • Avoid verbose build logging #534

  • (ultra petty) Remove an unused import #593

Testing improvements:

  • updating deprecated testing syntax #697

  • make test 375 more portable (use sys.executable rather than python) #664 #668

  • Removed outdated, skipped test for #130 that depended on content from the internet #256

  • enable all warnings during travis nosetests #517

  • travis updates #659

  • travis also builds release branches #598

Doc improvements:

  • Update list of builtin serialisers in docstring #621

  • Update reference to “Emulating container types” #575 #581 #583 #584

  • docs: clarify the use of an identifier when persisting a triplestore #654

  • DOC: fix simple typo, -> unnamed #562

2015-08-12 RELEASE 4.2.1

This is a bug-fix release.

Minor enhancements:

  • Added a Networkx connector #471, #507

  • Added a graph_tool connector #473

  • Added a graphs method to the Dataset object #504, #495

  • Batch commits for SPARQLUpdateStore #486

Bug fixes:

  • Fixed bnode collision bug #506, #496, #494

  • fix util.from_n3() parsing Literals with datatypes and Namespace support #503, #502

  • make Identifier.__hash__ stable wrt. multi processes #501, #500

  • fix handling URLInputSource without content-type #499, #498

  • no relative import in algebra when run as a script #497

  • Duplicate option in armstrong theme.conf removed #491

  • Variable.__repr__ returns a python representation string, not n3 #488

  • fixed broken example #482

  • trig output fixes #480

  • set PYTHONPATH to make rdfpipe tests use the right rdflib version #477

  • fix RDF/XML problem with unqualified use of rdf:about #470, #468

  • AuditableStore improvements #469, #463

  • added asserts for graph.set([s,p,o]) so s and p aren’t None #467

  • threading.RLock instances are context managers #465

  • SPARQLStore does not transform Literal(‘’) into Literal(‘None’) anymore #459, #457

  • slight performance increase for graph.all_nodes() #458

Testing improvements:

  • travis: migrate to docker container infrastructure #508

  • test for narrow python builds (chars > 0xFFFF) (related to #453, #454 ) #456, #509

  • dropped testing py3.2 #448

  • Running a local fuseki server on travis and making it failsafe #476, #475, #474, #466, #460

  • exclude def main(): functions from test coverage analysis #472

2015-02-19 RELEASE 4.2.0

This is a new minor version of RDFLib including a handful of new features:

  • Supporting N-Triples 1.1 syntax using UTF-8 encoding #447, #449, #400

  • Graph comparison now really works using RGDA1 (RDF Graph Digest Algorithm 1) #441 #385

  • More graceful degradation than simple crashing for unicode chars > 0xFFFF on narrow python builds. Parsing such characters will now work, but issue a UnicodeWarning. If you run python -W all you will already see a warning on import rdflib will show a warning (ImportWarning). #453, #454

  • URLInputSource now supports json-ld #425

  • SPARQLStore is now graph aware #401, #402

  • SPARQLStore now uses SPARQLWrapper for updates #397

  • Certain logging output is immediately shown in interactive mode #414

  • Python 3.4 fully supported #418

Minor enhancements & bugs fixed:

  • Fixed double invocation of 2to3 #437

  • PyRDFa parser missing brackets #434

  • Correctly handle \uXXXX and \UXXXXXXXX escapes in n3 files #426

  • Logging cleanups and keeping it on stderr #420 #414 #413

  • n3: allow @base URI to have a trailing ‘#’ #407 #379

  • microdata: add file:// to base if it’s a filename so rdflib can parse its own output #406 #403

  • TSV Results parse skips empty bindings in result #390

  • fixed accidental test run due to name #389

  • Bad boolean list serialization to Turtle & fixed ambiguity between Literal(False) and None #387 #382

  • Current version number & PyPI link in #383

2014-04-15 RELEASE 4.1.2

This is a bug-fix release.

  • Fixed unicode/str bug in py3 for rdfpipe #375

2014-03-03 RELEASE 4.1.1

This is a bug-fix release.

This will be the last RDFLib release to support python 2.5.

  • The RDF/XML Parser was made stricter, now raises exceptions for illegal repeated node-elements. #363

  • The SPARQLUpdateStore now supports non-ascii unicode in update statements #356

  • Fixed a bug in the NTriple/NQuad parser wrt. to unicode escape sequences #352

  • HTML5Lib is no longer pinned to 0.95 #355

  • RDF/XML Serializer now uses parseType=Literal for well-formed XML literals

  • A bug in the manchester OWL syntax was fixed #355

2013-12-31 RELEASE 4.1

This is a new minor version RDFLib, which includes a handful of new features:

  • A TriG parser was added (we already had a serializer) - it is up-to-date wrt. to the newest spec from:

  • The Turtle parser was made up to date wrt. to the latest Turtle spec.

  • Many more tests have been added - RDFLib now has over 2000 (passing!) tests. This is mainly thanks to the NT, Turtle, TriG, NQuads and SPARQL test-suites from W3C. This also included many fixes to the nt and nquad parsers.

  • ConjunctiveGraph and Dataset now support directly adding/removing quads with add/addN/remove methods.

  • rdfpipe command now supports datasets, and reading/writing context sensitive formats.

  • Optional graph-tracking was added to the Store interface, allowing empty graphs to be tracked for Datasets. The DataSet class also saw a general clean-up, see: #309

  • After long deprecation, BackwardCompatibleGraph was removed.

Minor enhancements/bugs fixed:

  • Many code samples in the documentation were fixed thanks to @PuckCh

  • The new IOMemory store was optimised a bit

  • SPARQL(Update)Store has been made more generic.

  • MD5 sums were never reinitialized in

  • Correct default value for empty prefix in N3 #312

  • Fixed tests when running in a non UTF-8 locale #344

  • Prefix in the original turtle have an impact on SPARQL query resolution #313

  • Duplicate BNode IDs from N3 Parser #305

  • Use QNames for TriG graph names #330

  • \uXXXX escapes in Turtle/N3 were fixed #335

  • A way to limit the number of triples retrieved from the SPARQLStore was added #346

  • Dots in localnames in Turtle #345 #336

  • BNode as Graph’s public ID #300

  • Introduced ordering of QuotedGraphs #291

2013-05-22 RELEASE 4.0.1

Following RDFLib tradition, some bugs snuck into the 4.0 release. This is a bug-fixing release:

  • the new URI validation caused lots of problems, but is necessary to avoid ‘’RDF injection’’ vulnerabilities. In the spirit of ‘’be liberal in what you accept, but conservative in what you produce”, we moved validation to serialisation time.

  • the package was missing from the script, and was therefore not included in the PYPI tarballs.

  • RDF parser choked on empty namespace URI #288

  • Parsing from sys.stdin was broken #285

  • The new IO store had problems with concurrent modifications if several graphs used the same store #286

  • Moved HTML5Lib dependency to the recently released 1.0b1 which support python3

2013-05-16 RELEASE 4.0

This release includes several major changes:

  • The new SPARQL 1.1 engine (rdflib-sparql) has been included in the core distribution. SPARQL 1.1 queries and updates should work out of the box.

    • SPARQL paths are exposed as operators on URIRefs, these can then be be used with graph.triples and friends:

      # List names of friends of Bob:
      g.triples(( bob, FOAF.knows/ , None ))
      # All super-classes:
      g.triples(( cls, RDFS.subClassOf * '+', None ))
      • a new graph.update method will apply SPARQL update statements

  • Several RDF 1.1 features are available:

    • A new DataSet class

    • XMLLiteral and HTMLLiterals

    • BNode (de)skolemization is supported through BNode.skolemize, URIRef.de_skolemize, Graph.skolemize and Graph.de_skolemize

  • Handled of Literal equality was split into lexical comparison (for normal == operator) and value space (using new Node.eq methods). This introduces some slight backwards incompatible changes, but was necessary, as the old version had inconsistent hash and equality methods that could lead the literals not working correctly in dicts/sets. The new way is more in line with how SPARQL 1.1 works. For the full details, see:

  • Iterating over QueryResults will generate ResultRow objects, these allow access to variable bindings as attributes or as a dict. I.e.

    for row in graph.query('select ... ') :
       print row.age, row["name"]
  • “Slicing” of Graphs and Resources as syntactic sugar: (#271)

    graph[bob : FOAF.knows/]
              -> generator over the names of Bobs friends
  • The SPARQLStore and SPARQLUpdateStore are now included in the RDFLib core

  • The documentation has been given a major overhaul, and examples for most features have been added.

Minor Changes:

  • String operations on URIRefs return new URIRefs: (#258)

    >>> URIRef('')+'test
  • Parser/Serializer plugins are also found by mime-type, not just by plugin name: (#277)

  • Namespace is no longer a subclass of URIRef

  • URIRefs and Literal language tags are validated on construction, avoiding some “RDF-injection” issues (#266)

  • A new memory store needs much less memory when loading large graphs (#268)

  • Turtle/N3 serializer now supports the base keyword correctly (#248)

  • py2exe support was fixed (#257)

  • Several bugs in the TriG serializer were fixed

  • Several bugs in the NQuads parser were fixed

2013-03-01 RELEASE 3.4

This release introduced new parsers for structured data in HTML. In particular formats: hturtle, rdfa, mdata and an auto-detecting html format were added. Thanks to Ivan Herman for this!

This release includes a lot of admin maintentance - correct dependencies for different python versions, etc. Several py3 bugs were also fixed.

This release drops python 2.4 compatibility - it was just getting too expensive for us to maintain. It should however be compatible with any cpython from 2.5 through 3.3.

  • node.md5_term is now deprecated, if you use it let us know.

  • Literal.datatype/language are now read-only properties (#226)

  • Serializing to file fails in py3 (#249)

  • TriX serializer places two xmlns attributes on same element (#250)

  • RDF/XML parser fails on when XML namespace is not explicitly declared (#247)

  • Resource class should “unbox” Resource instances on add (#215)

  • Turtle/N3 does not encode final quote of a string (#239)

  • float Literal precision lost when serializing graph to turtle or n3 (#237)

  • plain-literal representation of xsd:decimals fixed

  • allow read-only sleepycat stores

  • language tag parsing in N3/Turtle fixes to allow several subtags.

2012-10-10 RELEASE 3.2.3

Almost identical to 3.2.2 A stupid bug snuck into 3.2.2, and querying graphs were broken.

  • Fixes broken querying (#234)

  • graph.transitiveClosure now works with loops (#206)

2012-09-25 RELEASE 3.2.2

This is mainly a maintenance release.

This release should be compatible with python 2.4 through to 3.


  • Improved serialization/parsing roundtrip tests led to some fixes of obscure parser/serializer bugs. In particular complex string Literals in ntriples improved a lot.

  • The terms of a triple are now asserted to be RDFLib Node’s in graph.add This should avoid getting strings and other things in the store. (#200)

  • Added a specific TurtleParser that does not require the store to be non-formula aware. (#214)

  • A trig-serializer was added, see:

  • BNode generation was made thread-safe (#209) (also fixed better by dzinxed)

  • Illegal BNode IDs removed from NT output: (#212)

  • and more minor bug fixes that had no issues

2012-04-24 RELEASE 3.2.1

This is mainly a maintenance release.


  • New setuptools entry points for query processors and results

  • Literals constructed from other literals copy datatype/lang (#188)

  • Relative URIs are resolved incorrectly after redirects (#130)

  • Illegal prefixes in turtle output (#161)

  • Sleepcat store unstable prefixes (#201)

  • Consistent toPyton() for all node objects (#174)

  • Better random BNode ID in multi-thread environments (#185)

2012-01-19 RELEASE 3.2.0

Major changes:

  • Thanks to Thomas Kluyver, rdflib now works under python3, the script automatically runs 2to3.

  • Unit tests were updated and cleaned up. Now all tests should pass.

  • Documentation was updated and cleaned up.

  • A new resource oriented API was added:

    Fixed many minor issues:

    • Restored compatibility with Python 2.4

    • Reworking of Query result handling

    • generating xml:base attribute in RDF/XML output

  • serialize(format=”pretty-xml”) fails on cyclic links

2011-03-17 RELEASE 3.1.0

Fixed a range of minor issues:


    Literal.str does not behave like unicode


    (RDFa Parser) Does not handle application/xhtml+xml


    RDFa TC #117: Fragment identifiers stripped from BASE


    Malformed literals produced when rdfa contains newlines


    Namespaces beginning with _ are invalid


    Turtle Files with a UTF-8 BOM fail to parse


    ClosedNamespace.str returns URIRef not str


    IOMemory does not override open


    Timestamps with microseconds and “Z” timezone are not parsed


    DateTime literals with offsets fail to convert to Python


    Timestamps with timezone information are not parsed


      problem with unicode literals in

    BerkeleyDB Store broken with create=False


    Would be useful if Graph.query could propagate kwargs to a

    plugin processor


    Graph.connected exception when passed empty graph


    Not compatible with Python 2.4


    Support Python’s set operations on Graph


    NT output encoding to utf-8 broken as it goes through



    Store SPARQL Support

2010-05-13 RELEASE 3.0.0

Working test suite with all tests passing.

Removed dependency on setuptools.

(Issue #43) Updated Package and Module Names to follow conventions outlined in

Removed SPARQL bits and non core plugins. They are mostly moving to at least until they are stable.

Fixed datatype for Literal(True).

Fixed Literal to enforce constraint of having either a language or datatype but not both.

Fixed Literal’s repr.

Fixed to Graph Add/Sub/Mul opterators.

Upgraded RDFa parser to pyRdfa.

Upgraded N3 parser to the one from CWM.

Fixed unicode encoding issue involving N3Parser.

N3 serializer improvements.

Fixed HTTP content-negotiation

Fixed Store.namespaces method (which caused a few issues depending on Store implementation being used.)

Fixed interoperability issue with plugin module.

Fixed use of Deprecated functionality.

2009-03-30 RELEASE 2.4.1

Fixed Literal comparison case involving Literal’s with datatypes of XSD.base64Binary.

Fixed case where was matching before XSD.dateTime for datetime instances.

Fixed jython interoperability issue (issue #53).

Fixed Literal repr to handle apostrophes correctly (issue #28).

Fixed Literal’s repr to be consistent with its __init__ (issue #33).

2007-04-04 RELEASE 2.4.0

Improved Literal comparison / equality

Sparql cleanup.

getLiteralValue now returns the Literal object instead of the result of toPython(). Now that Literals override a good coverage of comparison operators, they should be passed around as first class objects in the SPARQL evaluation engine.

Added support for session bnodes re: sparql

Fixed prolog reduce/reduce conflict. Added Py_None IncRefs where they were being passed into Python method invocations (per drewp’s patch)

Fixed sparql queries involving empty namespace prefix.

Fixed the selected variables sparql issue

Fixed support in SPARQL queries.

Fixed involving multiple unions and queries are nested more than one level (bug in _getAllVariables causing failure when is None)


Fixed sparql json result comma errors issue.

Fixed (SELECT * variables out of order)

Added a 4Suite-based SPARQL XML Writer implementation. If 4Suite is not installed, the fallback python saxutils is used instead

applied patch from

The restriction on GRAPH patterns with variables has been relieved a bit to allow such usage when the variable is provided as an initial binding

Fix for OPTIONAL patterns. P1 OPT P2, where P1 and P2 shared variables which were bound to BNodes were not unifying on these BNode variable efficiently / correctly. The fix was to add bindings for ‘stored’ BNodes so they aren’t confused for wildcards

Added support to n3 parser for retaining namespace bindings.

Fixed several RDFaParser bugs.

Added serializer specific argument support.

Fixed a few PrettyXMLSerializer issues and added a max_depth option.

Fixed some TurtleSerializer issues.

Fixed some N3Serializer issues.

Added support easy_install

added link to long_descriptin for easy_install -U rdflib==dev to work; added download_url back

added continuous-releases-using-subversion bit

Added rdflib_tools package Added rdfpipe Added initial EARLPluging

Improved test running… using nose… added tests

Exposed generated test cases for nose to find. added bit to configure ‘ nosetests’ to run doc tests

added nose test bits

Added md5_term_hash method to terms.

Added commit_pending_transaction argument to Graph’s close method.

Added DeprecationWarning to rdflib.constants

Added a NamespaceDict class for those who want to avoid the Namespace as subclass of URIRef issues

Added bind function

Fixed type of Namespace re: URIRef vs. unicode

Improved ValueError message

Changed value method’s any argument to default to True

Changed __repr__ to always reflect that it’s an rdf.Literal – as this is the case even though we now have it acting like the corresponding type in some casses

A DISTINCT was added to the SELECT clause to ensure duplicate triples are not returned (an RDF graph is a set of triples) - which can happen for certain join expressions.

Support for ConditionalAndExpressionList and RelationalExpressionList (|| and && operators in FILTER)

Fixed context column comparison. The hash integer was being compared with ‘F’ causing a warning:Warning: Truncated incorrect DOUBLE value: ‘F’

applied patch in

fix for

General code cleanup (removing redundant imports, changing relative imports to absolute imports etc)

Removed usage of deprecated bits.

Added a number of test cases.

Added DeprecationWarning for save method

refactoring of GraphPattern

ReadOnlyGraphAggregate uses Graph constructor properly to setup (optionally) a common store

Fixed bug with . (fullstop) in localname parts.

Changed Graph’s value method to return None instead of raising an AssertionError.

Fixed conversion of (exiplicit) MySQL ports to integers.

Fixed MySQL store so it properly calculates __len__ of individual Graphs

Aligned with how BerkeleyDB is generating events (remove events are expressed in terms of interned strings)

Added code to catch unpickling related exceptions

Added BerkeleyDB store implementation.

Merged TextIndex from michel-events branch.

2006-10-15 RELEASE 2.3.3

Added TriXParser, N3Serializer and TurtleSerializer.

Added events to store interface: StoreCreated, TripleAdded and TripleRemoved.

Added Journal Reader and Writer.

Removed BerkeleyDB level journaling.

Added support for triple quoted Literal’s.

Fixed some corner cases with Literal comparison.

Fixed PatternResolution for patterns that return contexts only.

Fixed NodePickler not to choke on unhashable objects.

Fixed Namespace’s __getattr__ hack to ignore names starting with __

Added SPARQL != operator.

Fixed query result __len__ (more efficient).

Fixed and improved RDFa parser.

redland patches from

various patches for the testsuite -

2006-08-01 RELEASE 2.3.2

Added SPARQL query support.

Added XSD to/from Python datatype support to Literals.

Fixed ConjunctiveGraph so that it is a proper subclass of Graph.

Added Deprecation Warning when BackwardCompatGraph gets used.

Added RDFa parser.

Added Collection Class for working with RDF Collections.

Added method to Graph for testing connectedness

Fixed bug in N3 parser where identical BNodes were not being combined.

Fixed literal quoting in N3 serializer.

Fixed RDF/XML serializer to skip over N3 bits.

Changed Literal and URIRef instantiation to catch UnicodeDecodeErrors - which were being thrown when the default decoding method (ascii) was hitting certain characters.

Changed Graph’s bind method to also override the binding in the case of an existing generated bindings.

Added FOPLRelationalModel - a set of utility classes that implement a minimal Relational Model of FOPL implemented as a SQL database (uses identifier/value interning and integer half-md5-hashes for space and index efficiency).

Changed MySQL store to use FOPLRelationalModel plus fixes and improvements.

Added more test cases.

Cleaned up source code to follow pep8 / pep257.

2006-02-27 RELEASE 2.3.1

Added save method to BackwardCompatibleGraph so that etc work again.

Applied patch from Drew Perttula to add local_time_zone argument to util’s date_time method.

Fixed a relativize bug in the rdf/xml serializer.

Fixed NameError: global name ‘URIRef’ is not defined error in by adding missing import.

Applied patch for Seq to sort list by integer, added by Drew Hess.

Added a preserve_bnode_ids option to rdf/xml parser.

Applied assorted patches for tests (see )

Applied redland.diff (see )

Applied changes specified

Added a set method to Graph.

Fixed RDF/XML serializer so that it does not choke on n3 bits (rather it’ll just ignore them)

2005-12-23 RELEASE 2.3.0

See for most up-to-date release notes

Added N3 support to Graph and Store.

Added Sean’s n3p parser, and ntriples parser.

BerkeleyDB implementation has been revamped in the process of expanding it to support the new requirements n3 requirements. It also now persists a journal – more to come.

detabified source files.

Literal and parsers now distinguish between datatype of None and datatype of “”.

Store-agnostic ‘fallback’ implementation of REGEX matching (inefficient but provides the capability to stores that don’t support it natively). Implemented as a ‘wrapper’ around any Store which replaces REGEX terms with None (before dispatching to the store) and whittles out results that don’t match the given REGEX term expression(s).

Store-agnostic ‘fallback’ implementation of transactional rollbacks (also inefficient but provides the capability to stores that don’t support it natively). Implemented as a wrapper that tracks a ‘thread-safe’ list of reversal operations (for every add, track the remove call that reverts the store, and vice versa). Upon store.rollback(), execute the reverse operations. However, this doesn’t guarantee durability, since if the system fails before the rollbacks are all executed, the store will remain in an invalid state, but it provides Atomicity in the best case scenario.

2005-10-10 RELEASE 2.2.3

Fixed BerkeleyDB backend to commit after an add and remove. This should help just a bit with those unclean shutdowns ;)

Fixed use of logging so that it does not mess with the root logger. Thank you, Arve, for pointing this one out.

Fixed Graph’s value method to have default for subject in addition to predicate and object.

Fixed Fourthought backend to be consistent with interface. It now supports an empty constructor and an open method that takes a configuration string.

2005-09-10 RELEASE 2.2.2

Applied patch from inkel to add encoding argument to all serialization related methods.

Fixed XMLSerializer bug regarding default namespace bindings.

Fixed namespace binding bug involving binding a second default namespace.

Applied patch from Gunnar AAstrand Grimnes to add context support to __iadd__ on Graph. (Am considering the lack of context support a bug. Any users currently using __iadd__, let me know if this breaks any of your code.)

Added Fourthought backend contributed by Chimezie Ogbuji.

Fixed a RDF/XML parser bug relating to XMLLiteral and escaping.

Fixed so that install does not try to uninstall (rename_old) before installing; there’s now an uninstall command if one needs to uninstall.

2005-08-25 RELEASE 2.2.1

Fixed issue regarding Python2.3 compatibility.

Fixed minor issue with URIRef’s absolute method.

2005-08-12 RELEASE 2.1.4

Added optional base argument to URIRef.

Fixed bug where load and parse had inconsistent behavior.

Added a FileInputSource.

Added skeleton sparql parser and test framework.

Included pyparsing ( for sparql parsing.

Added attribute support to namespaces.

2005-06-28 RELEASE 2.1.3

Added Ivan’s sparql-p implementation.

Literal is now picklable.

Added optional base argument to serialize methods about which to relativize.

Applied patch to remove some dependencies on Python 2.4 features.

Fixed BNode’s n3 serialization bug (recently introduced).

Fixed a collections related bug.

2005-05-13 RELEASE 2.1.2

Added patch from Sidnei da Silva that adds a sqlobject based backend.

Fixed bug in PrettyXMLSerializer (rdf prefix decl was missing sometimes)

Fixed bug in RDF/XML parser where empty collections where causing exceptions.

2005-05-01 RELEASE 2.1.1

Fixed a number of bugs relating to 2.0 backward compatibility.

Fixed split_uri to handle URIs with _ in them properly.

Fixed bug in RDF/XML handler’s absolutize that would cause some URIRefs to end in ##

Added check_context to Graph.

Added patch the improves IOMemory implementation.

2005-04-12 RELEASE 2.1.0

Merged TripleStore and InformationStore into Graph.

Added plugin support (or at least cleaned up, made consistent the plugin support that existed).

Added value and seq methods to Graph.

Renamed prefix_mapping to bind.

Added namespaces method that is a generator over all prefix, namespace bindings.

Added notion of NamespaceManager.

Added couple new backends, IOMemory and ZODB.

2005-03-19 RELEASE 2.0.6

Added pretty-xml serializer (inlines BNodes where possible, typed nodes, Collections).

Fixed bug in NTParser and n3 methods where not all characters where being escaped.

Changed label and comment methods to return default passed in when there is no label or comment. Moved methods to Store Class. Store no longer inherits from Schema.

Fixed bug involving a case with rdf:about=’#’

Changed InMemoryBackend to update third index in the same style it does the first two.

2005-01-08 RELEASE 2.0.5

Added publicID argument to Store’s load method.

Added RDF and RDFS to top level rdflib package.

2004-10-14 RELEASE 2.0.4

Removed unfinished functionality.

Fixed bug where another prefix other than rdf was getting defined for the rdf namespace (causing an assertion to fail).

Fixed bug in serializer where nodeIDs were not valid NCNames.

2004-04-21 RELEASE 2.0.3

Added missing “from future import generators” statement to InformationStore.

Simplified RDF/XML serializer fixing a few bugs involving BNodes.

Added a reset method to RDF/XML parser.

Changed ‘if foo’ to “if foo is not None” in a few places in the RDF/XML parser.

Fully qualified imports in rdflib.syntax {parser, serializer}.

Context now goes through InformationStore (was bypassing it going directly to backend).

2004-03-22 RELEASE 2.0.2

Improved performance of Identifier equality tests.

Added missing “from future import generators” statements needed to run on Python2.2.

Added alternative to shlib.move() if it isn’t present.

Fixed bug that occurred when specifying a backend to InformationStore’s constructor.

Fixed bug recently introduced into InformationStore’s remove method.

2004-03-15 RELEASE 2.0.1

Fixed a bug in the SleepyCatBackend multi threaded concurrency support. (Tested fairly extensively under the following conditions: multi threaded, multi process, and both).

NOTE: fix involved change to database format – so 2.0.1 will not be able to open databases created with 2.0.0

Removed the use of the Concurrent wrapper around InMemoryBackend and modified InMemoryBackend to handle concurrent requests. (Motivated by Concurrent’s poor performance on bigger TripleStores.)

Improved the speed of len(store) by making backends responsible for implementing __len__.

Context objects now have a identifier property.

2004-03-10 RELEASE 2.0.0

Fixed a few bugs in the SleepyCatBackend multi process concurrency support.

Removed rdflib.Resource

Changed remove to now take a triple pattern and removed remove_triples method.

Added __iadd__ method to Store in support of store += another_store.

2004-01-04 RELEASE 1.3.2

Added a serialization dispatcher.

Added format arg to save method.

Store now remembers prefix/namespace bindings.

Backends are now more pluggable

2003-10-14 RELEASE 1.3.1

Fixed bug in serializer where triples where only getting serialized the first time.

Added type checking for contexts.

Fixed bug that caused comparisons with a Literal to fail when the right hand side was not a string.

Added DB_INIT_CDB flag to SCBacked for supporting multiple reader/single writer access

Changed rdf:RDF to be optional to conform with latest spec.

Fixed handling of XMLLiterals

2003-04-40 RELEASE 1.3.0

Removed bag_id support and added it to OLD_TERMS.

Added a double hash for keys in SCBacked.

Fixed _HTTPClient so that it no longer removes metadata about a context right after it adds it.

Added a KDTreeStore and RedlandStore backends.

Added a StoreTester.

2003-02-28 RELEASE 1.2.4

Fixed bug in SCBackend where language and datatype information where being ignored.

Fixed bug in transitive_subjects.

Updated some of the test cases that where not up to date.

async_load now adds more http header and error information to the InformationStore.

2003-02-11 RELEASE 1.2.3

Fixed bug in load methods where relative URLs where not being absolutized correctly on Windows.

Fixed serializer so that it throws an exception when trying to serialize a graph with a predicate that can not be split.

2003-02-07 RELEASE 1.2.2

Added an exists method to the BackwardCompatibility mixin.

Added versions of remove, remove_triples and triples methods to the BackwardCompatility mixin for TripleStores that take an s, p, o as opposed to an (s, p, o).

2003-02-03 RELEASE 1.2.1

Added support for parsing XMLLiterals.

Added support for proper charmod checking (only works in Python2.3).

Fixed remaining rdfcore test cases that where not passing.

Fixed windows bug in AbstractInformationStore’s run method.

2003-01-02 RELEASE 1.2.0

Added systemID, line #, and column # to error messages.

BNode prefix is now composed of ascii_letters instead of letters.

Added a bsddb backed InformationStore.

Added an asynchronous load method, methods for scheduling context updates, and a run method.

2002-12-16 RELEASE 1.1.5

Introduction of InformationStore, a TripleStore with the addition of context support.

Resource __getitem__ now returns object (no longer returns a Resource for the object).

Fixed bug in parser that was introduced in last release regaurding unqualified names.

2002-12-10 RELEASE 1.1.4

Interface realigned with last stable release.

Serializer now uses more of the abbreviated forms where possible.

Parser optimized and cleaned up.

Added third index to InMemoryStore.

The load and parse methods now take a single argument.

Added a StringInputSource for to support parsing from strings.

Renamed rdflib.BTreeTripleStore.TripleStore to rdflib.BTreeTripleStore.BTreeTripleStore.

Minor reorganization of mix-in classes.

2002-12-03 RELEASE 1.1.3

BNodes now created with a more unique identifier so BNodes from different sessions do not collide.

Added initial support for XML Literals (for now they are parsed into Literals).

Resource is no longer a special kind of URIRef.

Resource no longer looks at range to determine default return type for __getitem__. Instead there is now a get(predicate, default) method.

2002-11-21 RELEASE 1.1.2

Fixed Literal’s __eq__ method so that Literal(‘foo’)==’foo’ etc.

Fixed Resource’s __setitem__ method so that it does not raise a dictionary changed size while iterating exception.

2002-11-09 RELEASE 1.1.1

Resource is now a special kind of URIRef

Resource’s __getitem__ now looks at rdfs:range to determine return type in default case.

2002-11-05 RELEASE 1.1.0

A new development branch

Cleaned up interface and promoted it to SIR: Simple Interface for RDF.

Updated parser to use SAX2 interfaces instead of using expat directly.

Added BTreeTripleStore, a ZODB BTree TripleStore backend. And a default pre-mixed TripleStore that uses it.

Synced with latest (Editor’s draft) RDF/XML spec.

Added datatype support.

Cleaned up interfaces for load/parse: removed generate_path from loadsave andrenamed parse_URI to parse.

2002-10-08 RELEASE 0.9.6

The end of a development branch

BNode can now be created with specified value.

Literal now has a language attribute.

Parser now creates Literals with language attribute set appropriately as determined by xml:lang attributes.

TODO: Serializer-Literals-language attribute

TODO: Change __eq__ so that Literal(“foo”)==”foo” etc

TripleStores now support “in” operator. For example: if (s, p, o) in store: print “Found “, s, p, o

Added APIs/object for working at level of a Resource. NOTE: This functionality is still experimental

Consecutive Collections now parse correctly.

2002-08-06 RELEASE 0.9.5

Added support for rdf:parseType=”Collection”

Added items generator for getting items in a Collection

Renamed rdflib.triple_store to rdflib.TripleStore to better follow python style conventions.

Added an Identifier Class

Moved each node into its own Python module.

Added rdflib.util with a first and uniq function.

Added a little more to

Removed generate_uri since we have BNodes now.

2002-07-29 RELEASE 0.9.4

Added support for proposed rdf:nodeID to both the parser and serializer.

Reimplemented serializer which now nests things where possible.

Added partial support for XML Literal parseTypes.

2002-07-16 RELEASE 0.9.3

Fixed bug where bNodes where being created for nested property elements when they where not supposed to be.

Added lax mode that will convert rdf/xml files that contain bare IDs etc. Also, lax mode will only report parse errors instead of raising exceptions.

Added missing check for valid attribute names in the case of production 5.18 of latest WD spec.

2002-07-05 RELEASE 0.9.2

Added missing constants for SUBPROPERTYOF, ISDEFINEDBY.

Added test case for running all of the rdf/xml test cases.

Reimplemented rdf/xml parser to conform to latest WD.

2002-06-10 RELEASE 0.9.1

There is now a remove and a remove_triples (no more overloaded remove).

Layer 2 has been merged with layer 1 since there is no longer a need for them to be separate layers.

The generate_uri method has moved to LoadSave since triple stores do not have a notion of a uri. [Also, with proper bNode support on its way the need for a generate_uri might not be as high.]

Fixed bug in node’s n3 function: URI -> URIRef.

Replaced string based exceptions with class based exceptions.

Added PyUnit TestCase for

Added N-Triples parser.

Added __len__ and __eq__ methods to store interface.

2002-06-04 RELEASE 0.9.0

Initial release after being split from redfootlib.